Friday, May 31, 2019
Societal Views of Women in the Victorian Era in Henrik Ibsens A Dolls HouseA Dolls House, by Henrik Ibsen, creates a peephole into the lives of a family in the Victorian Era. The play portrays a female viewpoint in a male-dominated society. The determine of the society are described using the actions of a charwoman, Nora, who rebels against the in furtherices inflicted upon her gender. Womens equality with men was not recognized by society in the late 1800s. Rather, a woman was considered a doll, a child, and a servant. Noras alienation reveals societys assumptions and values about gender. A woman was considered by society to be a doll because she was expected to be subordinate to her husbands whims. Referring to a ball that she would attend, Nora asks her husband, Torvald, if he would take me in hand and decide what I shall go as and what sort of dress I should wear (26). Nora relies completely on how her husband would dress her, just like a doll. Just as Nora is treated as a doll , she interacts with her children as such. She doesnt raise them, she merely plays and romps with the children (13). She tells Torvald, our home has been nothing but a playroom. I have been your doll wife, just as at home I was Papas doll child and here the children have been my dolls (67). In this conversation, she shows her alienation as a woman in society by expressing discontent with her role in life. In addition to being treated like a doll, Nora is also regarded as a small child. Victorian society looks upon womens intelligence as no better than a childs. Torvald tells her, You talk like a child. You dont understand the conditions of the world in which you live (69). Yet, he does nothing to rectify the situation. While ... ... a heedless child (70). Because of Torvalds inability to grasp the notion of equality, Nora leaves him. Societys values are revealed by Noras declaration of equality and independence. Through Noras rebellious declaration and departure, she removes herse lf from societys standards and makes a move towards equality. She renounces societys views of a woman as a child, doll, and slave. Men in Victorian society told a woman how to act as a parent to a child, how to dress for a public event as an owner to a doll, and how to keep her thoughts to herself as a master to a slave. Henrik Ibsen portrayed qualities of the Victorian era through the alienated female gender, represented by Nora. Works CitedHenrik Ibsen, A Dolls House. Dover Thrift Edition, 1992Northam, John. Ibsen. A Collection of sarcastic Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall. 1965.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Token ring is a local area network protocol which resides at the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI model. It uses a additional three-byte flesh called a keepsake that travels unidirectionally around a star-wired logical ring. Token ring frames travel completely around the loop. The name Token Ring is misleading since the physical topology is a loop.Each station passes or repeats the special token frame around the ring to its nearest downstream neighbor. This token-passing process is used to ar bendrate access to the shared ring media. Stations that have data frames to transmit must first acquire the token before they can transmit them. Token ring LANs unremarkably use differential Manchester encoding of bits on the LAN media.Token ring was invented by Olof Sderblom in the late 1960s. It was later licensed to IBM, who popularized the use of token ring LANs in the mid 1980s when it released its IBM token ring architecture based on active multi-station access units (MSAUs or MAUs) and the IBM Structured Cabling System. The Institute of galvanizing and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (http//www.ieee.org) later exchangeable a token ring LAN system as IEEE 802.5 (http//www.ieee802.org/5/).Token ring LAN speeds of 4Mbps, 16Mbps, 100Mbps and 1Gbps have been standardized by the IEEE 802.5 working group.Token ring networks had significantly superior performance and reliability compared to early shared-media implementations of Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), and were widely adopted as a higher-performance alternative to shared-media Ethernet.However, with the instruction of switched Ethernet, token ring architectures lagged badly behind Ethernet in both performance and reliability. The higher sales of Ethernet allowed economies of scale which drove down expenses further, and added a compelling price advantage to its other advantages over token ring.Token ring networks have since declined in usage and the standards activity has since come to a standstill as switched Ethernet has rule the LAN/layer 2 networking market.The Token FrameWhen no station is transmitting a data frame, a special token frame circles the loop. This special token frame is repeated from station to station until arriving at a station that needs to transmit data. When a station needs to transmit a data frame, it converts the token frame into a data frame for transmission. The special token frame consists of three bytes as followsStarting Delimiter - consists of a special bit pattern denoting the beginning of the frame. The bits from most significant to least significant are J,K,0,J,K,0,0,0. J and K are code violations.
For fifty years the unexplained air craft wreckage found outside Roswell,New Mexico, has been in the center of on-going speculation about alien flavorforms and US Government and Military cover-ups. It is my personal beliefthat extraterrestrial bodies are present in this Universe and have landedon earth. There is to a greater extent evidence pointing to the fact that there are alienspresent in the universe as proved in this essay. Retired military officialswill admit to there cosmos extraterrestrials being present on earth. An excellent example of this is what happened in Roswell, New Mexico, in1947. When the US Government and Military first found the wreckage of anunidentified aircraft they issued a press release stating that they hadcome into possession of an Unidentified Flying Object. The present USGovernment have passed the Roswell incident off as a unopen case - theirinvestigations declared the incident to be nothing more than a crashedweather balloon from the top secret Pro ject Mogul and the alien bodies besides to be crash test dummies. This essay will argue the point that thereis other life in the Universe and that the crash landing at Roswell in1947, was an alien space craft and not a weather balloon.Leading up to the Roswell Incident UFOs were spotted all over New Mexicoand the mid-western coast line. On July 1 of 1947, an Unidentified FlyingObject appeared on the radar screens of surrounding airforce bases. Peoplealso saw these objects in the skies that night and the next. On July 4 -Independence Day - radar screens showed an object pulsate then explode.Some archaeologists in the area were watching the sky and saw the aerialdisplay as did a large number of the people living in the town. Thearchaeologists set out the next morning to look for the wreckage they sawfall to ground later on the explosion. They reached the crash site about 10amand found wreckage scattered over a site 3 quarters of a mile long andtwo to three hundred feet wide. The arc haeology team alerted authoritiesthen peered into the rubble to find the bodies of five aliens (the numberof aliens is debatable), four of them already dead but one mute alive witha severe wound to the thigh. The witnesses are sure they saw aliens in thespace ship, not crash dummies, and the wreckage was too advanced to be humanity technology. A number of witnesses who saw the crash site before theUS Government intervened were interviewed and all gave comprehensivedescriptions of the aliens and their flying craft.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
A General Model of PublicationAlthough the medium and the veridical may differ vastly, essentially the homogeneous common process is always involved in event (Fig. 1). For on-line(a) publications this model makes it possible to automate m any(prenominal) of the steps involved (see module on Automated document processing). Figure 1. A model for the publication process. The same general pattern of steps occurs whatever the publication and whatever the type of stuff and nonsense involved. This model encompasses all the stages described earlier, but in a somewhat more formalized form. We can summarize the steps as follows Submission The origin submits material to the editor. Acquisition The publisher acquires material. Here we take this to include permissions. Details of the submission are recorded and an acknowledgment is sent to the author. Quality assurance The material is checked. Errors are referred back to the author for correction. Production The material is prepared for pub lication. This stage includes copy-editing, design, typesetting, printing and binding. Proofs are checked both by the author and editor and any typesetting errors are corrected. For books, an ISBN number is obtained. Distribution The publication is shipped to stores etc for sale. It is publicized so that people know that it is available. The Internet offers advantages for publications of all-kinds. These include Pinstant world-wide availability Ppublication features of the World-Wide Web Peliminating distribution costs Preducing production costs - no need to print hard copy P possible world-wide audience and Pniche/special interest publishing becomes viable. The World Wide Web expands the traditional notion of a publication in several(prenominal) ways Pit is possible to include multimedia elements Pit is possible to include hyperlinks to selective information anywhere Pit is possible to draw together information from many different sources Phypermedia books are not limited to the t raditional linear structure of printed books. They can, for instance, provide several alternative paths through a set of documents, or allow readers to pursue material to whatever depth they wish and Pit diminishes the distinction between tradtitional text-oriented publications and other products, such as databases and on-line software.Legal issuesLegal issues abound in the publishing business. Although legal issues are not dealt with in detail here the editor should make every causal agency to keep up to date with issues and changes. Each publication should be carefully checked to ensure that legal risks are minimized. Some of the legal matters involved in publishing include PContracts Publishers always need to ensure the legal status of material that they publish.
On the 2nd of July 1997, Asia was hit by one of the closely devastating financial crises it has ever seen. Of all the financial crisis that have taken place, this was one of the most distressing in that it was totally unexpected. The purpose of this paper is to portray that particular developmental strategies employed by these economies eventually guide to their downfall. It will attempt to find out where the origins of the crisis lie, and what events started the cycle that eventuated with this disaster. In order to trace the events that led to the eventual collapse of the Asian economies, one must venture across the ocean to the United States. The issue of liberalisation first gained attention in the US during the Regan Administration. However, it was during the Clinton era that liberalisation became a top priority. Whereas previous governments had pushed for the liberalisation of Japan, one of Clintons main foreign policy objectives was the liberalisation of the Asian economies . This process was pushed forwards in Asia with such vehemence because the region held a lot of investment opportunities for American Banks, Brokerages, and other financial sector businesses. Unfortunately, Asias economies were not structurally fake to deal with the inflow of capital that was headed their way. They had weak banking and legal systems that were unable, or unwilling, to regulate the period of time of foreign capital in the country. The Americans eventually persuaded Korea to relax its capital flow regulations by giving it the option of joining the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Even then, Korea was concerned that its financial institutions may not be able to deal with an influx of foreign capital. One fatal mistake that Korea, as well as other Southeast Asian countries made, was that they opened their capital markets in the wrong way. They did not allow long term investments in Korean companies, but rather, only short-term investments that could be removed easily. One example of the sort of quick investments that were being made in Asia can be seen in the Japanese. In Japan the interest rates were very low, so investors would borrow at 2 per centum and then convert their cash into Thai baht. Due to the interest rate differential, they were able to make a lot of money off simple currency conversion. Other Asian economies were quick to follow suit, and soon there was a movement of huge amounts of capital into the region.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Free Trade and Employment There is an ongoing argument about whether or not free trade has an affect on employment. For hundreds of old age there have been people who stand on both sides of the fence of this distinguish. As with most debates, each side presents facts that argon presented in a indisputable light that may cause them to tell a story that may be different than what the actual numbers mean. Those who oppose free trade leave behind say that competition with imports provide destroy jobs for people realizeing in those particular industries. While those who support free trade will defend their view by arguing that the increase in exports will instead create jobs, and that competition will help to drive sets down. While both positions tell stories that are true, they fail to accept that for the most part, any effects tend to stinkercel each other out and employment levels remain stable and level (Irwin Chapter 3). The issue of free trade is both complex a nd important enough that each side deserves a closer look, so we can see both sides in concert and get a feeling for what is really happening. After all, just because free trade may not have a substantial effect on employment alone, that is not necessarily true for the economy as a whole.Any attention that competes with a foreign good or service will inevitably have to drop the price of its product in order to stay competitive in an international market. Trade opponents admit that while this price drop will lead to more efficient production, it may also lead to lower real wages, and less employment in that particular industry or company. This is the primary argument for those who suggest that imports will destroy jobs, and it is not always false, but it is not always true either. Foreign competition can destroy jobs, because the people that get displaced cannot simply just go work for the competitor. In addition, it takes both time and money to retrain for another field of wor k and most people, especially those who are closer to the retirement age, would rather spend that time looking for another job in the same or similar industry instead of educating themselves for a new line of work. Those who are fortunate enough to keep their jobs must settle for lower wages or at least the same wages that are now comparatively lower related to production than they were before production efficiency increased.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Stanley Ho Hung Sun the King of maneuver ,from his multiethnic identity to the contribution to orderliness Introduction Macao is know to the world for its casino intentness. Macaos richest man, Ho Hung Sun, is an entrepreneur in Asia. Ho is also known as The King of Gambling, showing the monopoly he held of the Macau gambling perseverance for over 40 historic period. Behind Stanley Hos successful c beer is a story of ordeals and adventures that will inspire everyone. This essay focuses on the contribution of Stanley Ho as a multiethnic entrepreneur in laying the foundations for Macao to become a world-know gambling place.The factors that explain Stanley Hos success is complex . Ranging from his multiethnic identity, family connections, to the historical background (particularly the Second valet War and the Handover to China), have all played a vital role. Background Stanley Hos Multi-ethnicity Stanley Ho was born in a well-known and potent family in Hong Kong on November 25, 1921. His grandfather Ho Fok was the younger brother of Sir Robert Ho Tung, an influential figure in Hong Kongs political and commercial circles at that time. speckle Sir Robert Ho Tung, was an influential agate lineman in British Hong Kong.He was an multiethnic person, born to a man of Dutch and Jewish ancestry named Charles Henri Maurice Bosman and Madame Sze, a Han Chinese muliebrity of Bao An heritage. It has often been claimed that he was the first Chinese to be allowed to live on Victoria Peak in 1906. Stanley Hos father, Ho Sai Kwong, was a business who made great fortunes. Stanley Ho was born with a silver spoon in his mouth. But his father lost his fortune when he was only 12, subsequently an adverse stock market investment and abandoned his family. It shown that Stanley Ho is Portuguese, Jewish, British and Chinese multi-ethnic mixed. Fortunes may not follow you a lifetime, only fellowship will. By Stanley Ho Stanley Ho studied at Queens College, Hong Kong. Owing to his unsatisfactory academic results, he attended Class D, which is the lowest class level. After realizing studying was the only path to improve his social status, he worked hard and make himself a scholarship to the University of Hong Kong. He was the first student from Class D to be granted a scholarship. But unfortunately he couldnt finish the studies due to the broke out of World War II in1942. Stanley Hos CareerStanley Ho left Hong Kong for Macao with only 10 Hong Kong dollars in his pocket. Fortunately, He soon found a job in the largergest lodge in Macao. The company was jointly controlled by the most influential groups in Macao, the Portuguese Macao government and the Japanese army. Thanks to his hard work and command of four different languages (Portuguese, Japanese, British and Chinese) . Ho became a partner of the company and got a million dividends at the end of the second year he joined. When the war ended, Ho returned to Hong Kong and started the real estate busines s.As the industry in Hong Kong was experiencing a period of rapid growth, Ho made huge profits from the business and became one of the richest men in the region. In 1961, the Portuguese Macau government think to develop Macaos casino industry and placed bids for its operation. Ho teamed up with Henry Fok Ying Tung, a businessman in Hong Kong, and won the bid. They promised the government to open a unseasoned port in Macao, and secondly, bought efficient ships which could shortened the commuting time between Hong Kong and Macao to about one and a half hours.More importantly, they committed to spend 90%of the income they earned on charities. Offering such favorable conditions, their rivals could not compete at all. At the end of 1990, Ho had already control the entire casino industry in Macao with his nine casino companies. It is estimated that about 1/4 of residents in Macau were worked for his companies. This explains why Ho received the glory of the Gambling King though he never gambled himself. In 2003, Ho lost his monopoly on Macaos casino industry due to the stricter governments policy. But his influence in Macaos economy and his status as the Gambling King do not end.In 2008, Ho was 113th on Forbes magazines list of the worlds richest people. According to the report by Hong Kong media in 2010, Hos four listed companies shares held by the hand, including the Casino, the detest Tak group and MELCO international and VC holdings, the market quantify at that time a total of about HK $35 billion dollars. His properties, plus the sum of the market value of the non-listed companies, conservatively estimated that they worth more than 60 billion Hong Kong dollars. Honours accords With his international profile, Ho received a number of honours from overnments around the world, including Portugal, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Spain, Japan, Malaysia, the apostolic Insignia and others. Macau A Medalha de Honra Lotus de Ouro (Golden Lotus Medal of Honour) (2001)A Medalha de Honra Grande Lotus (Grand Lotus Medal of Honour) (2007)A new avenue in Macau was named after Dr. Ho as Avenida Doutor Stanley Ho (Dr. Stanley Ho Avenue) in May 1998. He is the first Chinese in the history of Macau who has an avenue to be named after during lifetime. G2E Asia Visionary Award(2009) Hong Kong Gold Bauhinia superstar (G. B. S. ) (2003) China Honorary Citizen gGuangzhou, Guangdong Province (1993)Honorary Citizen of Nanhai, Guangdong Province (1994)Honorary Citizen of Foshan, Guangdong Province (1995)Honorary Citizen of Sanshui, Guangdong Province (1995)Guangzhou City Award for Outstanding Achievement (1996)Honorary Citizen of Jiangmen, Guangdong Province (1997)Honorary Citizen of Zhuhai, Guangdong Province (1998)Honorary Citizen of Beijing (2000)Chinese Charity Award (2005 2008)Beijing Olympics Honour (2008) Portugal Comendador da Ordem de Benemerencia (Commander of the Order of Benefaction) (1970)Comendador da Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique (Comma nder of the Order of Prince Henry the Navigator) (1981)Grande-Oficial da Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique (Grand Officer of the Order of Prince Henry the Navigator) (1985)Gra-Cruz da Ordem do Merito (Grand track of the Order of Merit) (1990) Medalha Naval de Vasco da Gama (Naval Medal, Vasco da Gama) (1991)Gra-Cruz da Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique (Order of the Grand Cross of Prince Henry the Navigator) (1995)Nuno Goncalo Vieira Matias (Medal of the Naval Cross, First Class) (1999)Medalha de Merito Turistico No Grau Ouro (Gold Medal of Merit in Tourism) (2001)Medal of Corporate Merit by the Municipality of Cascais (2008)An avenue in Cascais was named after Dr. Ho as Avenida Dr. Stanley Ho (Dr. Stanley Ho Avenue) in October 2008. He is the first Chinese in the history of Portugal who has an avenue to be named after during lifetime. United Kingdom Commander of the Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem (1983) Officer of the Order of the British Empire (O. B. E. ) (1990) France Chevalier de la Legion dHonneur (1983) Commandeur de la Legion dHonneur (2004) Spain Cruz de Plata de la Orden Civil de la Solidaridad Social (Silver Cross Medal of Social Solidarity) (1993) Belgium Commandeur de Lordre de la Couronne (Commander of the Order of the Crown) (2007) Japan Insignia of the Order of the Sacred Treasure (1987) Malaysia Darjah Dato Seri Paduka Mahkota Perak (S. P. M. P. ) (Honourable Order of the Crown of Perak) (1990) Darjah Seri Paduka Mahkota Terengganu (S. P. M. T. ) (Honourable Order of the Crown of Terengganu) (1997) Papal Insignia Eqvitem Commendatorem Ordinis Sancti Gregorii Magni by His Holiness Pope John capital of Minnesota II (1989) Contribution to Society Adhering to the principle of from society to society, Ho supports many activities for the benefit of Macaus people and society. As a responsible entrepreneur, he places special emphasis on improving social welfare, medical services and education in Macau and Hong Kong.Because during those ye ars of managing the casino business, he admitted that many families were ruined by gambling. So he did a lot of charity works to make up for it and live up to the expectations of society. In Social Aspect Ho worked to intone the foundations of Macau, including enhancement of Macaus basic infrastructure, transportation and tourism amenities. Examples of developments that demonstrate Hos contribution to Macau include the Friendship Bridge, Macau Maritime Terminal, Macau container port, Macau International Airport, Macau Tower, urbanization of the satellite Harbour District, reclamation of the Nam Van Lakes District, high speed ferries, hotels and many others.All these help turning Macau into an integrated tourism city and benefits of its people. As Ho said in 1962, The view that our enterprise is merely focus on gambling is a misconception. Our purpose is to bring a new prosperity to Macau and to improve the welfare and liveliness standard of Macau citizens. History proves his promi se. Over the years, Ho has also contributed to the promotion of Macau as a platform between China and the Portuguese-speaking countries for economic and cultural exchange by means of his investment presence and networks in Macau, Hong Kong, China and Portugal. In educational Aspect Hos charitable contributions on educational field are extensive.Donations to schools and education funds are set up to encourage students from the low-income family to continue their studies. For example, The Stanley Ho Scholarship is available to the new graduate accepted for a look degree at Oxford University in the area of Chinese studies. He also supports the Girl Guides and the Boy Scouts, and the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, the Workers Children Schools in Hong Kong and Macau, to the Police Childrens Education Trust. finis Relation between his identity and career During the days Ho escaped to Macau in 1942, he joined the Macau Cooperative Company, the ownership of which was shared betwee n Chinese, Japanese and Portuguese interest parties.Ho was well command of four languages, Portuguese, Japanese, English and Chinese due to his multi-ethnicity. Then he could be well communicated with different parties at that time. He soon became successful in Macau, he then returned to Hong Kong in 1947. His company, the Agencia Commercial Progresso, engaged in ship-breaking and dealt in piece goods. From 1948, he was Managing Director of the Hong Kong Match Factory. He traded with Korea during the Korean War. As Hos eldest daughter Angela mentioned, thanks to her late mother, Clementina Leitao. Her connections in Portugal and Macau were the biggest single factor for Ho in winning the gambling monopoly in 1961.Hos business interests extend from Macau, Hong Kong, China and Portugal to across the world and cover a spectrum of industry sectors including gaming, hospitality, real estate, shipping. Relation between his identity and contribution One must study hard. Nothing is better t han a good education, said Ho. Upon success in career, Stanley Ho has paid much attention to the development of education in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, including sponsoring and funding various research and educational programs. As a member of the Court of the University of Hong Kong, Stanley Ho offered financial assistance to the construction of its new academic construct and facilities, for example the University of Hong Kong Stanley Ho Sports Centre.For his contributions to the Hong Kong economy and to the promotion of education, The University of Hong Kong conferred upon him an Honorary Doctorate in Social Sciences in 1987. Ho is the Honorary Lifetime Chairman of The University of Hong Kong Foundation for Educational Development and Research, and a founding member of the Court of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University as well. The reason why Stanley Ho contributes so much on the educational palm of Hong Kong is obvious. Across several studies (Renn, 2004 Wallace, 2003), how a multiracial individual looks, including skin color, hair texture and color, eye and nose shape, and so ,could strongly influences his or her identity.For Stanley Ho, he has big blond eyes with capacious and tall nose like foreigners. But to a accredited extent, Ho treated his identity as a Hong Kong citizen. Although Stanley Ho is a multiethnic person with Portuguese, Jewish, British and Chinese multi-ethnic mixed. Ho was born and raised in Hong Kong. He studied at the Queens College and the University of Hong Kong. Ho believes that fulfilling his obligations to society is such a source of happiness and satisfaction. So he donates much to support students in Hong Kong. Probably majority of them goes to the University of Hong Kong, which is the mother school of Stanley Ho. To a certain extent, the ecological approach described by Brunsma helps explaining such case.It predicts mixed-raced individuals will choose one race or other to identify with depending where they are in l ive- in other words, the different situation or physical location they may find themselves in. As Stanley Ho was born and raised in Hong Kong and worked in Macau for long periods, It is not difficult to explain why he contributes so much on both Hong Kong and Macaus schools and academic institutions instead of those in India, for example. Future Ho has made extensive contributions to the gambling business of Macau and to the sustainable prosperity of Macau over the past 48 years. Among the six operators, SJM (the one owned by Stanley Ho) is the only company with its roots in Macau, and the largest casino operator in terms of gaming revenue, market share and number of casinos.Now that the king of gambling Stanley Ho is 92 years old already, his rivals are speculating on who will fill the power vacuum when he eventually dies. Since Macau opened its markets to foreign investors, the era of Stanley Ho has been diminishing gradually. in that respect will not be another figure like Stanl ey Ho . And the future of Stanley Hos holdings has been in question. Words Cited List Renn, K. A. Understanding the Identities of Mixed-Race College Students Through a developmental Ecology Lens. Journal of College Student Development, 2003. Print Wallace, K. R. Contextual Factors Affecting Identity Among Mixed Heritage College Students. Multiracial Child Resource Book Living heterogeneous Identities. MAVIN Foundation, 2003. Print
Saturday, May 25, 2019
No one knows what is in him till he tries, and many would never try if they were not forced to. - Basil W. Maturing To achieve personal fulfillment and/or enlightenment can be a precise daunting and some Individuals may never achieve It before they die. The feel of peace inside of oneself will allow an Individual to love with no restraints but not be blinded towards Ill- doings. An individual may be secure enough with themselves, it allows them befriend there see their true worth and beauty it is quite easy for them to see the beauty in the majority of aspects.This is the most complex of situations and usually is the dwelling out of the three aspects and usually can control the professional and romantic relationships. The supreme happiness of life is the conviction that we are loved Victor Hugo It is tell that when a person is in love that the brain produces chemical processes that determine how one feels or the mood of a person. There are a a few(prenominal) Doctors that live that being in love has tremendous effect on a persons health, for the better.With the body releasing hormones (such as dopamine and extinction) that actually send signals passim the body of feelings of trust, pleasure, safety, and the list are not. If there were more people in this world that was happy within their romantic relationships, there would be less domestic help violence in many cases, escalates into murder of not only the significant other but to the children as well. When a couple is happy and confident in their relationship, it can be empowering.Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony. - Mahatma Gandhi. It is greatly disconcerting that there are so many people that are hurting, for some priming or another, and the only way they feel as if they can express themselves, is to inflict pain onto others. Another great quote is misery loves company- John jibe I am sure that the majorities of people have experienced this in some way, shape, or form in a period of their lives.People have been enquire what the secret to life is there will be a variety of answers given if asked. If I were asked my answer would sound so easy but very difficult to achieve, it is as simple as true happiness and this can only come from within, not from another individual or object. Unfortunately people do not know this so they continue to search for it and in the process they miss some really great moments in life. To die never life up to the expectations that one sets for them, would seem like an agonizing way to leave this world.
Friday, May 24, 2019
In all my life I have discovered many things. My discoveries have allowed us to fill more new discoveries. But a problem I think of is what the world would be like if I never existed. To start things off hotshot important discovery I made was modern physics. If I was never to make the discoveries in optics, motion, and mathematics modern physics wouldnt of existed which means that scientist wouldnt have never known that every object in the universe has a force that attracts each other.Something else the world would have never found would be my laws of motion. The laws of motion gave people a repair understanding regarding movement which helps people today in space travel and mechanics. The world would be a better place without John Locke for many reasons. One good reason would be that if he didnt exist there wouldnt be a handle of miscarriage issues around the world and especially in the United States.The reason why there are a lot of abortion issues today in the United States i s because John Locke influenced Thomas Jefferson and when Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence he included some stuff John Locke believed in. One thing was that he said adult male beings are free to do what they want with their property. There are good things about that but theirs also bad things like abortion. The reason why abortion is legal is because the baby are the parents property and John Locke said that when babies are in the stomach their blank so in other words babies are ok to be aborted because their nothing.So if john Locke was to never have existed he wouldnt have been able to influence Thomas Jefferson which means that there wouldnt have been a lot of abortions. To sum everything up I Isaac Newton has made the modern world a better place because of my discoveries and if John Locke never existed the world including the United States would have no abortion issues and remember all of us are here because we were all born and not aborted.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
29) All of the following features may be characteristic of preferred germinate EXCEPT A) callable. B) no maturity date. C) tax-deductible dividends. D) convertible. swear out c If a firm has class A and class B common stock outstanding, it sum that A) from each one class receives a different dividend. B) the par value of each class is different. C) the dividend paid to one of the classes is tax deductible by the corporation. D) one of the classes is plausibly non-voting stock. Answer D 33)Julian is considering purchasing the stock of Pepsi Cola because he really loves the taste of Pepsi. What should Julian be willing to conciliate for Pepsi today if it is expected to pay a $2 dividend in one year and he expects dividends to growth at 5 portion indefinitely? Julian requires a 12 percent decease to make this investment. A) $28. 57 B) $29. 33 C) $31. 43 D) $43. 14 Answer A Nico Custom Cycles common stock currently pays no dividends. The company plans to pay back compensable d ividends beginning 3 years from today. The first dividend will be $3. 0 and dividends will grow at 5 percent per year there subsequently. given over a required return of 15 percent, what would you pay for the stock today? A) $25. 33 B) $18. 73 C) $29. 86 D) $20. 72 Jias Fashions recently paid a $2 one-year dividend. The company is projecting that its dividends will grow by 20 percent next year, 12 percent annually for the two years after that, and thus at 6 percent annually thereafter. Based on this information, how much should Jias Fashions common stock sell for today if her required return is 10. 5%? A) $54. 90 B) $60. 80 C) $66. 60 D) $69. 30 Answer CPreferred Stock and Common Stock29) All of the following features may be characteristic of preferred stock EXCEPT A) callable. B) no maturity date. C) tax-deductible dividends. D) convertible. Answer c If a firm has class A and class B common stock outstanding, it means that A) each class receives a different dividend. B) the par value of each class is different. C) the dividend paid to one of the classes is tax deductible by the corporation. D) one of the classes is probably non-voting stock. Answer D 33)Julian is considering purchasing the stock of Pepsi Cola because he really loves the taste of Pepsi. What should Julian be willing to pay for Pepsi today if it is expected to pay a $2 dividend in one year and he expects dividends to growth at 5 percent indefinitely? Julian requires a 12 percent return to make this investment. A) $28. 57 B) $29. 33 C) $31. 43 D) $43. 14 Answer A Nico Custom Cycles common stock currently pays no dividends. The company plans to begin paying dividends beginning 3 years from today. The first dividend will be $3. 0 and dividends will grow at 5 percent per year thereafter. Given a required return of 15 percent, what would you pay for the stock today? A) $25. 33 B) $18. 73 C) $29. 86 D) $20. 72 Jias Fashions recently paid a $2 annual dividend. The company is projecting that its div idends will grow by 20 percent next year, 12 percent annually for the two years after that, and then at 6 percent annually thereafter. Based on this information, how much should Jias Fashions common stock sell for today if her required return is 10. 5%? A) $54. 90 B) $60. 80 C) $66. 60 D) $69. 30 Answer C
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
A very good afternoon to the honor judges, Ms Linda and Ms Joane, all my friends and the fellow audience, and especially the organizer of this public speaking competition. My name is Chin Kar Mei, from DHT. Well This is my pleasure for having a chance to present my speech at this stage. I am here seeking for your attention my topic is about ? ExcellentCulture in Malaysia.? Hopefully all of you will enjoy for it. Ladies and gentlemen First and foremost, our 6th salad days Minister, Dato Seri Najib Razak used to say, ?OneMalaysia should be existed today onwards?. Dato Seri continued saying that, ? This is the best solution for restructuring our society during the outbreak of a global recession?. What does it mean by One Malaysia concept? One Malaysia concept consists of 8 values. They are culture of excellence, perseverance, humility, acceptance, loyalty, meritocracy, education and the pass away one, integrity. All of these are prime conditions to reach 1Malaysia. This concept is nei ther too hard nor too easy to be achieved.Since Malaysia is being developed, current Prime Minister espoused 1Malaysia concept and it is purposely takes into considerations the interests and aspirations of all communities in moving estate forward. Ladies and gentlemen Malaysia is a multi-racial community. For instance, Malays, Chinese, Indians, Iban, Kadazan and so on. Every Malaysian should understand and tolerate among each other in order to create a harmony place. There is a good example, understanding Islam among Muslims and non-Muslims. Non-Muslims cannot take alcoholic beverages, cannot take pork product and so forth. There is another situation, still could remember, when I was working in hotel last time. I have realized that there was several gangs in my department. They are Malays, Chinese and Indians gang. They were arguing among each other every time just because of small, atomic things. They were never ever tolerating among themselves. Until once upon a time, there was a severe mistake done by someone else. And because of this, warning letter will be given to everyone unless we able to find out the solution. Therefore, all the 3 gangs finally discussed together regardless the races and we really found the best solution.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a socio-political complain against the policy of racial segregation and discrimination campaign in the everyday transport service of Montgomery city, Alabama in 1955. It lasted for one whole year starting at December 5, 1955 and ending at Decenmer21, 1956. The sentiments of the Afro-the Statesn fellowship were cooled down by a get together States Supreme decision that declared segregation in public transport as unconstitutional.The main cause of the witness and boycott of transport system was racial discrimination. This segregation was a source of bitterness and pathos for the Afro-Americans community for a long period of time. The city hatful service was making a mockery of Afro-American as they were harassed by lily-white drivers. They had top pay the fare at the front room access whereas they had to reboard from the rear-door. They used to sit behind a barrier that segregated the white community from the black one. This barrier was always move d toward the rear end to outfit more white customers. On the bus, blacks sat behind a mobile barrier dividing the races, and as the bus filled, the barrier was pushed back to make room for white passengers.This stated resentments of the black residents of Montgomery city got an impetus in the arrest of Rosa Parks. She was taken into custody on December 1, 1955 on the charges that she refused vacate her butt end to a white passenger. She was penalized 10$ in addition to $ 4 court charges. This decision flamed the feelings of the Afro-American community who had already planned to set a hold out against this uncivilized practice.So the same day, on December 05, 1955, almost forty two thousands melanise residents of the city started the boycott of city bus transport in order to protest racial segregation and racially discriminatory law of Alabama state. Rosa Parks was also an enthusiastic adherent of the protest campaign. The commencement exercise occurrence of protest was a one da y boycott by a local womens rights organization, Womens Political Council to show solidarity with Rosa Parks. The councils prexy JoAnn published and distributed 52,000 fliers that prompted Montgomerys Afro-American community to stay off public buses on the day of the Rosa Parks trial.National tie beam for the Advancement of Colored Peoples (NAACP) local section, that was hankering after an issue to involve the court into a legal and constitutional debate oer the issue of racial segregation took advantage of the situation, started preparing for the legal challenge. After the conviction of Rosa Parks, the local black leaders congregated to arrange a mass protest and an extension of the bus boycott. They further established Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) to forward the interest of the Afro-American community at the guinea pig level and take Luther King Jr. as its president.This protest continued for 381 days during which Black community used other mean of conveyance like taxis, carpooling, and walking done miles. Their efforts and sacrifices bore fruit when they ultimately succeeded in their struggle to desegregate seating on public buses, not only in Montgomery, but throughout the United States through a decision made by Supreme Court.As it is stated earlier that Black organizations like NAACP and other community leader started cerebration on various legal measures to challenge the Alabama bus segregation laws and to eradicate the segregation. For his purpose, they based their case on Fourth Amendments that declares equal laws for every citizen of America and wanted a clear judgment in this regards over the discriminatory laws of Alabama State. But real solace came through another case Browder v. Gayle that was filed on February 1, 1956, in the U.S. District Court.Browder was a Montgomery housewife who was denied the equal right of bus service under the discriminatory law and Gayle was the mayor of Montgomery. In June, 1956 ruling, federal court declared the segregated seating as unconstitutional but an appeal was forwarded to the United States Supreme Court. However, on November 13, 1956, the superior court endorsed the lower courts ruling. This was a great triumph for the Afro-American community as they won the struggle for their rights.The Montgomery Bus Boycott cast deep imprints U.S. history and equipped the Black leadership with an impetus to carry on their civil rights struggle. It had implications that reached far beyond the desegregation of public buses. Luther King established himself as the leader of a national stature. The protest boosted the Civil Rights Movement and created a mass awareness about the struggle of Afro-American community and highlighted their pathos and miseries. It further provided confidence to the Black hoi polloi that they can win their rights by constant struggle. In the words of King We have gained a new sense of dignity and destiny. We have discovered a new and powerful weaponnon-violen t resistance.ReferenceBurns, Stewart. (1997) Daybreak of Freedom The Montgomery Bus Boycott. The University of North Carolina Press.
Monday, May 20, 2019
passim the course of the execute, the character of village undergoes major upheaval, so a transition in his psyche is to be expected. One version behind the source for this transition is the one stated in the title (i. e. that he is a self-obsessed, broken typical adolescent) a nonher may be that he is simply the dupe of exceptional circumstances (namely his overprotects death and his mothers marriage to his uncle) either way, it is heart-to-heart that small town is acting under severe emotional stress during the play.That critical point is a very neurotic schoolboyish man is easy enough to tell the list of things he obsesses about is extensive the afterlife, his vexs murder, his new misogynistic flavours, suicide and general worldly dissatisfaction, to list the main bulk of his obsessions.Some of his soliloquies (which argon the passages where Shakespeargon allows Hamlet to reveal his complete emotions to the audience) are testament to this obsession, especially co ncerning suicide (O that this similarly too solid flesh would melt, To be or not to be). This self-obsession may be judgment of as somewhat surprising when it is noted that Hamlet is meant to be heir to the Dane throne, as it portrays Hamlet as someone in a role of great social responsibility who only has the scope to recover about his personal problems.Hamlet is by now old enough to attend university (although his age is unspecified), showing that he has reached an age where he can think independently and fully comprehend his duty to society, adding to the horse sense that he is being selfish in that he does not think of the well-being of his country, despite the many references to problems in Denmark (Something is rotten in the state of Denmark). It is this personal fixation and irresponsibility on Hamlets part that ends up bringing the ultimately Danish monarchy into ruin, with Fortinbras of Norway ascending to the throne.The claim that Hamlet is also miserable is also a va lid one the audience usually set abouts Hamlet in a highly melancholic state of mind (whether it is mere non-white impetuousness or full-blown suicidal depression). Hamlet seems dissatisfied with everything his family, his nation, the world, his very existence. Part of the reason for this depressed nature is Hamlets tendency to think and contemplate complex aspects of existence, such as the afterlife, which contrasts with the straight-forward action men that surround him, and is more typical of the mod moody teenager.For all of these reasons, it can be argued that Hamlet is indeed a self-obsessed, miserable typical teenager. However, a different interpretation of Hamlet is that he is the victim of exceptionally harrowing circumstances. His age is indeterminate, although the reviewer is sure that he is a young man. Already with the weight of an entire nation on his shoulders, his father dies, only for his mother to wed with wicked speed to his fathers brother such a combination i n such a short space of time for one as young as Hamlet is bound to have a detrimental effect on his outlook.Add to this the on the face of it insensitive handling of this shocking series of take downts by Claudius which serves only to exacerbate Hamlets sorrow and confusion (but to persever/ In obstinate condolement is a course/ Of impious stubbornness, tis unmanly grief,) and it becomes evident that Hamlet cannot be compared to a moody teenager, because the events that usually make teenagers stroppy cannot be compared in any way to the mental anguish that Hamlet is probably suffering. Such a comparison would be callous and thoughtless.Hamlets apparent descent into a self-crafted madness is indicative of the huge pressure placed upon him by the ghost of his father, who seems only interested in revenge rather than helping his son (Remember me. ). This emphasises the feeling that Hamlet is alone, with no-one truly understanding his situation (with the possible exception of Horatio ). Teenagers nowadays have a big array of methods in which they can seek help (i. e. relatives, hotlines, the police), again stressing the vast chasm between the situation of a moody teenager and the agonising plight which Hamlet finds himself in.The sheer exceptional scale of tragedy that occurs during the play and the profound effect they have on Hamlet are enough to ensure that he should not be compared to a moody teenager to do so would be highly inconsiderate. Hence the interpretation that Hamlet is self-obsessed is a highly unfair one, as the world he knew previously has been shattered, and the one he finds himself in now is so intolerable to him that he ponders suicide, meaning that the affairs of Denmark do not find such a high priority in his mind because his personal life is in disarray. so far through the catastrophes in the play, as Hamlet lies on the ground dying, he names Fortinbras as the conterminous ruler of Denmark this shows that, after he has resolved all of h is issues, he starts to once again think of his nation, even as he is dying the claim that he is miserable is a fair one, but he is justifiably miserable. He is not miserable because his parents will not let him attend a troupe he is miserable because his father is dead and his mother has begun an incestuous relationship with his uncle.This is a legitimate reason for misery, and so Hamlet should be treated with a fitting level of compassion at least(prenominal) certainly not compared to typical teenagers. It is for the reasons above that the statement Hamlet is a self-obsessed, miserable typical teenager does not resonate well with the reader the very fact that he is able to be sullen and even jocular initially (A little more than kin, and less than kind. Not so much, my lord, I am too much in the son. ) is a testament to his strong personality his true feelings are revealed in the following soliloquy. The character of Hamlet is far more complex than a comparatively dewy-eyed t eenager the circumstances far more tragic the pressure upon him far greater.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Introduction. When a subject reads and add in a magazine, what is it that drives that person to go out and procure the product the add depicts? What even makes a subject provideing to spend more time flavour at the add? It is at this point where the art of judgment does its best work.Definitions. The Elaboration likeliness Model claims that at that place are two paths to eyeshot the central path and the peripheral path. (lecture 2/20/03) The central path is most widely used when the pass receiver is motivated to come back about the. If the person cares about the issue and has access to the message with minimum distractions, then that person will elaborate on the message. (lecture, 2/20/03). If the message is ambiguous but attitudinally neutral (with respect to the receiver) or if the receiver is unavailing or not motivated to listen to the message then the receiver will look for an easier sort to interpret it. This leads to the peripheral route. Peripheral cues include su ch strategies as trying to associate the advocated position with things the receiver already thinks positively towards (e.g., beauty, m oney, sex).(lecture, 2/20/03) If the peripheral cue association is accepted here, then there may be a temporary attitude change and possibly future elaboration.Peripheral Route. The premiere advertisement that was chosen, from Gentlemans Quarterly magazine, depicts a very attractive man standing in front of a bottle of cologne. The advertisement is for Polo, a brand notoriously associated with affluence, and prestige. This add illustrates the advertisers wish to hobble the eye of the consumer as they are flipping the pages of the magazine using a method other then their product.. The assembly line in this case is weak. Polo is trying to depict that if a subject uses their unseasoned cologne, it is possible for them have a lifestyle like the model pictured. Most cologne adds, have a tab that you send packing up to(p) up on the same page and sm ell the cologne, that would cause one to elaborate on the add. This one does not, therefore, Polo was trying to get the consumer attention to a fragrance, using a beautiful person. This is clearly an example of persuasion using peripheral cues. The average age of a subject that would likely be persuaded by this add, would be middle to late twenties, the age in which people are attempting to attain affluence.Central Route. The second advertisement that was chosen, from Sports Illustrated, is an add put out by Mercedes Benz to promote their new line of SUVs, the M-Class.. It is very clear that Mercedes in this case was trying to promote the security aspect of their SUVs. When a consumer sees this add, it is apparent that the central route will be used, because there is no greater motivation for thinking, then the safety of family. The ad would definatly cause the consumer to elaborate, and think about how safe the car that one is currently driving in, is. Thus, the add has done its d ividing line in attracting a consumer. One specific characteristic of the add that makes it persuasive, are the g-ds in the clouds attempting to dissolve the path of the truck, as it seems to effortlessly keep on going. This clever use of history depicts that nothing can hurt those once inside this vehicle, not even g-ds. The type of person that would most likely be persuaded by this add would be a young father (28yrs.-40yrs.)who is in the market for a new car. This add is affective cause it gets a subject thinking, thus using the central routeConclusion. The management that consumers read and respond to advertisements as shown in this paper, is crucial to promoting a product. Whether a company uses the central or peripheral routes, to attract consumer interest, can make a huge different in sales of that product. The publicise industry is a multi-billion dollars business,(GQ, December 2002) in which creative minds develop new ideas in the art of persuasion for the next generation s.
What does this meter seem to be most? This poetry seems to be or so a person whos describing or holding a girls appearance and how her personality is. Words Were the words in this verse form difficult or easy to sympathise? Was there any word or phrase that was aright to you? The word or phrase that was powerful to me was She walks in beauty, like the night Images Did the poet create strong images? What could you see, hear, smell, taste, or feel? The poet created very strong images in my mind such as how the girl might look. I felt calm when I was discipline the poem. Figurative Language What poetic devices were used in this poem? What did these poetic devices do for the poem? Did these devices befriend create imagery or communicate the authors feelings? The poetic device that was used in the poem was simile. In the phrase She walks in beauty, like the night, it states like or as, so indeed it is a simile. The poetic device conveyed what the poem means more. Emotion What emotion was the author trying to express? I think the author was in peace and he is probably in love. Structure How is the poem organized (lines, stanzas, etc. )?The poem is organized in 3 stanzas. What is unique or interesting about the structure of the poem? Does the poem rhyme? Something that is unique about the poem is that uses words such as oer. It looks like it has been written a long time ago. Yes, this poem has rhyming words such as night, bright, and light. Meaning What is the poem saying about life or love? The author is give tongue to his love for a girl. Do you agree or disagree with this centre? Explain. I agree with this message because everyone will always have a lover in their life. Are there any an other(prenominal) reasonable ways to interpret this poem?Another reasonable way to interpret this poem is that a lover will one day come into your heart. Publication What kind of magazine or other publication would be the best place for this type of poem? The magazine that would be perfect for this poem is Cloud Nine. Cloud Nine has articles about people who are in love. The way that the author writes this poem seems that he is in love. He is describing the girl in a calm, peaceful, and adorable way. The poem starts off with She walks in beauty, like the night. This statement clearly states that it will perfectly fit with the Cloud Nine Magazine.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
The Benefits of Doing Volunteer survey Abroad Being a bid abroad does not give you monetary compensation for the term spent working. However, the fourth dimension spent on volunteering abroad can improve the community and the world at large. The unselfish work that you do has innumerable benefits for both oneself and others. Although you may not receive a risque cheque for the confinement that you put in undertaking volunteer work aboard, there ar legion(predicate) indirect benefits volunteering for work abroad. Here are some of the benefits of doing volunteer work abroad In customary purport you experience situations that call for your facilitate.A passion to help others can be fulfilled by volunteering for work abroad. Committing your time and energy to the cause that you fearfulness about impart bring you immense satisfaction. astir(p) Your Skills There are two things which are important in every individuals life a) Change and good in ones skill b) Sharing the ski lls, familiarity and experience with others When you do volunteer work abroad you piss a chance to do both. Each person that you interact with when you volunteer has some skill and knowledge to impart. You get to learn more and more things about the issue that you support.You can get an opportunity to figure the new skills that you learned while volunteering. Also, you get an opportunity to pass on the knowledge that you have. The satisfaction of sharing your knowledge with co-volunteers and children can be rewarding. 1 / 3 The Benefits of Doing Volunteer Work Abroad Make refreshful Friends You can make many another(prenominal) new friends when you do volunteer work abroad. The volunteers and employees of non-profit organisations are often some of the kindest large number you can escort. These people are always ready to help, no matter what the problem.These people are unselfish and live in the hardest of conditions to make the world a better place. They are the best people you will come across, so make sure you value your friendship with them. You also get to meet people from diverse backgrounds that you may never get an opportunity to meet in your daily life. note good about circumstances others Have you ever given a meal to a terra incognita or helped someone who is sick? If you havent, therefore I suggest you give it a try. If you have helped someone, then you know how it feels to help others without expecting anything in return.You get the same feeling when volunteering abroad for a cause that you care about. You will feel good when you help someone. Over time, you will realise that you are addicted to helping others and you want to devote as much time as possible to helping others. Make a Difference The fact that you can make a difference in someone elses life will give you immense satisfaction. Volunteering aboard will give you an opportunity to help others. Putting in time and effort will help in a) Making a difference in someone elses life b) Making the community and world at large a better place to live in.This effort that you put in will have a long-lasting impact on the community. 2 / 3 The Benefits of Doing Volunteer Work Abroad Confidence Building When you volunteer for work abroad you face many new challenges. These challenges help in developing your skills and improving your self-confidence. Also, you have so many people to help you that you learn a lot from them. These experiences will help you to deal with difficult situations in everyday life. So, volunteer for cause that you believe and help improve yourself and the world. 3 / 3
Friday, May 17, 2019
Chapter 19 complementary the Audit / Post visit Responsibilities Learning Check 19-1. The three categories of activities in finish the take stock ar (a) completing domain work, (b) evaluating the bring forthings, and (c) communicating with the knob. 19-2. The activities involved in completing the field work be (a) making consequent takingss examine, (b) schooling minutes of wagerings, (c) set roughlying evidence concerning litigation, claims, and assessments, (d) engendering thickening representation garner, and (e) execute analytical procedures. 19-3. a.Subsequent returns argon accompaniments that overstep between the relief winding-clothes regard and the exit experience of the tenders story (which is non the same as the find bug out of the topic) that whitethorn affect the fiscal statements on which the bill is r termin routinered. The subsequent resultant roles finish extends from the sleep bed tatter lead to the end of field work on the liaison. b. The types are event 1 consists of those events that suffer extra evidence with take none to actors that existed at the reckon of the balance carpenters plane and affect the estimates inherent in the process of preparing pecuniary statements. Type 2 consists of those events that provide evidence with respect to sort outs that did non exist at the date of the balance sheet but arose subsequent to that date. Type 1 events pick up adjustment of the fiscal statements. Type 2 events demand apocalypse, and in very cloth cases, by attaching pro-form info to the pecuniary statements. c. The meeter is involve by GAAS to await for and to evaluate subsequent events up to the date of the attenders account, which should be as of the end of field work.This account cogency is fulfil by (1) creation alert for subsequent events in performing year-end substantive tests aft(prenominal) the balance sheet date, and (2) performing specific procedures at or near th e completion of field work. 19-4. a. Regarding litigation, claims, and assessments (LCA), the attendee should go for evidential matter on The existence of a condition, situation, or set of circumstances indicating an uncertainty as to the possible loss to an entity arising from the LCA. The diaphragm in which the central ca social occasion for legal action occurred. The degree of prospect of an unfavorable outcome. The amount or range of potential loss. b. A earn of visit inquiry is a letter sent by perplexity to the compeverys outside legal counsel requesting the attorney to send stipulate nurture directly to the tender round(predicate) LCA against the comp either. The letter is the attendants primary means of obtaining evidence about LCA. c. When the lawyer fails to respond, the canvasor has a scope limitation.Depending on frameworkity, the meeter will deliver either a subject opinion or a disclaimer of opinion. 19-5. a. The objectives of a rep letter are (1 ) confirm unwritten representations given to the auditor, (2) document the continuing tolerateness of such(prenominal) representations, and (3) chasten the possibility of misunderstandings concerning centerings representations. b. When the auditor is unable to obtain a rep letter or support a counseling representation that is cloth to the monetary statements by other audit procedures, there is a scope limitation.Depending on materiality, the auditor will express either a qualified opinion or a disclaimer of opinion 19-6. a. The objectives of an over every(prenominal) in both review are to assist the auditor in (1) assessing conclusions r from all(prenominal) oneed in the audit and (2) evaluating the fiscal statement presentation taken as a whole. b. The review should be made by an individual having comprehensive knowledge of the nodes vexation and industry. Normally, either the furnish in charge of the audit or the top manager on the utilization nets the review. c.A nalytical procedures performed during the last-place stages of the audit should be Applied to critical audit areas identified during the audit. Based on pecuniary statement selective selective education after all audit adjustments and reclassifications stick been recognized. As in other cases, the data may be compared to (1) expected comp each results, (2) available industry data, and (3) relevant non monetary data. 19-7. a. The two objectives in evaluating the findings are determining (1) the type of opinion to be expressed and (2) whether GAAS has been met in the audit. . Four steps in meeting these objectives are Making a final assessment of materiality and audit risk. Making a technical review of pecuniary statements. Formulating an opinion and drafting the audit sketch. Making final review(s) of the working papers. 19-8. a. The purposes of the auditors final assessment of materiality and audit risk are to determine whether (1) the auditors preliminary judgments concerning materiality own been met and (2) audit risk is at an acceptable aim to warrant the expression of an opinion. . Known misstatement is an uncorrected misstatement in an look identified done substantive tests of detail of transactions and balances. Likely misstatement is the total error in an key out resulting from (1) known misstatements, (2) projected uncorrected misstatements estimated through audit sampling techniques, and (3) estimated misstatements detected through analytical procedures and quantified by other auditing rocedures. Aggregate likely misstatement is the sum of likely misstatements in all accounts. 19-9. a. Professional standards establish a office for the auditor to evaluate whether there is comforting doubt about the guests top executive to insure as a dismission concern for a valid period of clipping, non to draw whiz year beyond the date of the fiscal statements being audited (generally one year from balance sheet date).Ordinarily, infor mation that would raise substantial doubt about the going concern assumption relates to the entitys inability to continue to meet its obligations as they become due without substantial disposition of assets outside the ordinary course of military control, restructuring of debt, outwardly forced revisions of its unconscious processs, or similar actions. b. The auditor patternly evaluates whether there is substantial doubt about the clients ability to continue as a going concern based on the results of recipe audit procedures performed in planning, in gathering evidence to support various audit objectives, and in completing the audit. . If the auditor concludes that substantial doubt exists, he or she should consider the need for the following divine revelations Pertinent conditions and events free rise to the assessment of substantial doubt about the entitys ability to continue as a going concern for a reasonable period of time. The possible do of such conditions and events. Managements e valuation of the significance of those conditions and events and any mitigating factors. Possible discontinuance of operations. Managements plans (including relevant prospective financial information). n3 Information about the recoverability or classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts or classification of liabilities. d. If, after considering identified conditions and managements plans, the auditor concludes that substantial doubt about the entitys ability to continue as a going concern for a reasonable period of time remains, the audit report is normally an unqualified audit opinion with an instructive carve up about the uncertainty (following the opinion paragraph) to reflect that conclusion.The auditors conclusion about the entitys ability to continue as a going concern should be expressed through the use of the phrase substantial doubt about its (the entitys) ability to continue as a going concern. If the auditor concludes that the entitys r evelations with respect to the entitys ability to continue as a going concern are inadequate, a de wear outure from generally accepted write up principles exists. This may result in either a qualified (except for) or an adverse opinion. 19-10.The technical review of the financial statements embroils matters pertaining to the form and content of each of the basic statements as well as to needed disclosures. Most certified public accountant firms use separate checklists for SEC and non-SEC clients. The auditor who performs the initial review of the financial statements completes the checklists. The manager and furnish in charge of the engagement (in the case of a publicly held client then review the checklists, a henchman who was non a member of the audit aggroup) reviews them again. 19-11. a. The opinion to be expressed is determined by the partner in charge of the engagement.The decision is made on the basis of the findings made by the audit team during the audit. b. Proposed adjustments and disclosures are discussed with the client and differences are resolved. Ordinarily, agreement is reached and an unqualified opinion can be expressed. 19-12. a. The primary reviewers and the constitution of their reviews are Reviewer Nature of Review Manager Reviews working papers vigilant by seniors and reviews just about or all of the working papers reviewed by seniors. Partner in charge Reviews working papers secured by managers and reviews other working papers on a of engagement selective basis. b. The engagement partners review of the working papers is designed to obtain self-confidence that The work done by subordinates has been sinless and thorough. The judgments exercised by subordinates were reasonable and appropriate in the circumstances. The audit engagement has been completed in accordance with the conditions and wrong specified in the engagement letter. All noneworthy accounting, auditing, and reporting questions raised during the audit take a leak been powerful resolved. The working papers support the auditors opinion. Generally accepted auditing standards and the firms quality prevail policies and procedures form been met. c. The second partner may be more objective than the partner on the engagement. Thus, the second partner review provides surplus assurance that GAAS have been met. Second partner reviews are mandatory for SEC registrants. 19-13.The auditors communications with the client at the conclusion of the audit involve the audit delegation of the dining table of directors (or the board directly) and management. 19-14. a. Reportable conditions represent crucial deficiencies in the design or operation of the ingrained halt social anatomical structure, which could adversely affect the organizations ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data consistent with the assertions of management in the financial statements. The magnitude of a reportable condition determines whether it is also a material weakness.A material weakness is outlined as a reportable condition in which the design or operation of the specific inner(a) control structure elements does not reduce to a relatively low level the risk that misstatements in amounts that would be material in sexual affinity to the financial statements being audited may occur and not be detected inwardly a incidentally period by employees in the normal course of performing their assigned duties. b. A report issued on reportable conditions should Indicate that the purpose of the audit is to report on the financial statements and not to provide assurance on the internal control structure. Include the definition of reportable conditions. Include the restriction on diffusion (e. g. restricted to the audit committee, management, and others within the organization). In addition, the reportable conditions should be described in one or more separate paragraphs. 19-15. When the auditor separately identifies and describes material weaknesses in his or her report, two additive paragraphs are required. The first paragraph should contain a definition of the term material weakness and a definition of the reportable conditions that are material weaknesses.The second additional paragraph should describe the limitations of the auditors work, noting specifically that the auditors consideration of the internal control structure would not necessarily disclose all matters considered to be material weaknesses. 19-16. a. The communication may be oral or written, and it may occur during or shortly after the audit. b. The communication with the audit committee may include such matters as Auditors responsibilities under GAAS. Significant accounting policies. Management judgments and accounting estimates. Significant audit adjustments. Disagreements with management. Consultation with other accountants. Major issues discussed with management prior to retention. Difficulties in performing the audit. In addition, the auditor essential communicate reportable conditions. 19-17. a. The purpose of a management letter is to provide management with recommendations for improving the efficiency and authority of its operations. b. A management letter may include comments on familiar control matters that are not considered to be reportable conditions. Management of resources such as cash, inventories, and investments. Other value-added recommendations on how to improve organization performance. Tax cogitate matters. 19-18. a. The auditor has no responsibility to make inquiry or to perform any auditing procedures on subsequent events occurring after field work but before issuance of the report. When a situation comes to the auditors attention, he or she is required to evaluate the item and consider its effect on the report that is being issued. b. The auditor may use the event date as the date of the auditors report provided all subsequent events review procedures are performed for the period between the original report date and the event date.Alternatively, the auditor may use dual dating in which the report contains two dates (1) the original date of the report, and (2) a date that refers to the subsequent event that has occurred between the original date of the report and the date of its issuance. In this case, it is not needed to extend performance of all subsequent events review procedures through the later date except as to the particular event giving rise to the dual dating. 19-19. a. The auditor has no responsibility for the postaudit recovery of facts existent at the date of the audit report.However, when the auditor becomes aware of such facts and the facts may have affected the report that was issued, he or she must ascertain the reliability of the information. b. When the client refuses to make the necessary disclosures, the auditor should notify each member of the board of directors of such refusal and take the following steps to balk further reliance on the audit report advertise the client that the audit report must no longer be associated with the financial statements. Notify the regulative agencies having jurisdiction over the client that the report should no longer be relied on. Notify (generally via the regulatory agency) each individual known to be relying on the statements that the report should no longer be relied on. 19-20. a. When the auditor has been able to make a satisfactory investigating and has determined that the information is reliable, he or she should describe the effects the subsequently acquired information would have had on the financial statements and the auditors report. b.When the client has not cooperated and the auditor has been unable to make a satisfactory investigation, without disclosing the specific information, the auditor should (1) indicate the lack of cooperation and (2) state that if the information is true, the audit report should no longer be relied on. 19-21. a. The auditor has no responsibility to make any retrospective review of his or her work. However, when knowledge is obtained of possible omitted procedures, the auditor should assess their importance to his or her ability to support the previously expressed opinion. b.The auditor may find that he or she (1) can support the opinion or (2) cannot support the opinion. In the latter case, the auditor should perform the omitted procedures and if necessary prevent further reliance on the report. Objective Questions 19-22. 1. b 2. a 3. c 19-23. 1. a 2. b 3. b 4. c 19-24. 1. a 2. c 3. b Comprehensive Questions 19-25. (Estimated time 20 minutes) . The first type of subsequent events includes those events that provide additional evidence concerning conditions that existed at the balance sheet date and affect the estimates inherent in the process of preparing financial statements. This type of subsequent events requires that the financial statements be modify by any stirs in estimates resulting from the use of such additional evidence. The second type of subsequent events consists of those events that provide evidence concerning conditions that did not exist at the balance sheet date but arose subsequent to that date.These events should not result in adjustment to the financial statements but may be such that disclosure is required to keep the financial statements from being mis conducting. b. The auditing procedures Green should consider performing to gather evidence concerning subsequent events include the following Compare the latest available interim statements with the financial statements being audited. Ascertain whether the interim statements were vigilant on the same basis as the audited financial statements. Inquire whether there was any significant change in the capital stock, long-term debt, or working capital to the date of inquiry. Inquire about the original status of items in the audited financial statements that were accounted for on the basis of tenta tive, preliminary, or inconclusive data. Inquire about any unusual adjustments made since the balance sheet date. Read or inquire about the minutes of meetings of stockholders or the board of directors. Inquire of the clients legal counsel concerning litigation, claims, and assessments. have a management representation letter, dated as of the date of Greens report, as to whether any subsequent events would require adjustment or disclosure. Make such additional inquiries or perform such additional procedures as Green considers necessary and appropriate. 19-26. (Estimated time 30 minutes) a. 1. A subsequent events review is utilise to provide reasonable assurance that the auditor is aware of significant events that have a material effect on financial statements. These are events that have occurred after the date of the financial statements but before the issuance of the audit report. 2.If the subsequent event is one that provides additional evidence concerning conditions existi ng at the date of the financial statements, then the financial statements must be adjusted. If the subsequent event is one that provides evidence concerning conditions that arose after the date of the financial statements, disclosure is required. b. 1. The auditor obtains written representations from the client as part of the evidence gathered to meet the third standard of field work. The purpose of these written representations by management is to Confirm oral representations given to the auditor. Impress on management that it has the primary responsibility for the financial statements. 2. The client representation letter may include statements concerning the following matters Completeness and availability of the accounting records and minutes of meetings of shareholders, directors, and committees. Absence of live(a) transactions and errors and irregularities in the financial statements. Existence of related party transactions or contingencies. Plans or purposeions that may affect the carrying value of assets and liabilities. . 1. The purpose of the management letter is to communicate to management the auditors recommendations regarding improvements in the efficiency and the effectiveness of matters that came to the auditors attention during the audit. 2. Three major subjects that may be addressed in the management letter include the following. Internal control structure weaknesses that are considered immaterial. Improvements to the accounting and information system. Improvements to the internal controls related to achieving the objectives of the organization. 9-27. (Estimated time 25 minutes) Item No. Required Disclosure or Audit Procedures Entry and Reasons 1. Goods in-transit would be detected in the course of the The receipt of the goods provides additional evidence with auditors review of the year-end crosscut of gets.The respect to conditions that existed at the date of the balance auditor would examine receiving reports and purch ase invoicessheet and hence the financial statements should be adjusted to to make certain that the liability to suppliers had been take into account such additional information. recorded for all goods included in inventory, and that all goods for which the client was liable at year end were recorded in inventory. 2. Settlements of litigation would be revealed by requesting Settlements of litigation would require an adjustment of the from the companys legal counsel a commentary and evaluationfinancial statements since the events that gave rise to the of any litigation, impending litigation, claims, and litigation had taken place prior to the balance sheet date. contingent upon(p) liabilities of which he or she has knowledge that existed at the date of the balance sheet being reported upon, together with a commentary and evaluation of any additional matters of a like nature which come to his or her attention up to the date the information is furnished.A review of cash disbursements for the period between the balance sheet date and completion of field work may also reveal evidence of the settlement. 3. The purchase would normally be Revealed in general The purchase of a new business is not an event that provides conversations with the client and would further be detected evidence with respect to conditions existing at the balance by cultivation the minutes of meetings of stockholders, sheet date hence, it does not require adjustments in the directors, and appropriate committee.In addition, because financial statements. However, such an event would normally be the amount paid is likely to be unusually large in relation of such importance that disclosures of it is required to keep to other cash disbursements, a review of cash disbursements the financial statements from being misleading. If the for the period between the balance sheet date and completion acquisition is significant en ough, it dexterity be advisable to of field work is likely to reveal such an extraordinary supplement the diachronic statements with pro-forma statements transaction.Moreover, because a purchase of a business indicating the financial results if the two firms had been usually requires a formal purchase agreement, the letter fromconsolidated for the year ending December 31, 19XO. Otherwise, the firms legal counsel would probably have revealed the disclosure in footnotes to the financial statements would be purchase. adequate. Occasionally, a situation of this type may have such a material impact on the entity that the auditor may wish to include in the audit report an explanatory paragraph directing the readers attention to the event and its effect. 4. Inventory losses attributable to a make full would be brought to Losses attributable to floods subsequent to the balance sheet the auditors attention through inquires and discussions withdate to not provide in fo rmation with respect to conditions corporate policemans and executives. Moreover, the auditor that existed at the balance sheet data hence, adjustment in would know the location of the plants and warehouses of the financial statements is not required. However, because the clients and upon becoming aware of any major floods in such alosses are material, they should be revealed in footnotes to location, he or she would check over to determine if the the financial statements. Occasionally, situation of this type clients facilities had suffered any damage. may have such a material Impact on the entity that the auditor may wish to include in the audit report an explanatory paragraph directing the readers attention to the event and its effect. 5. The sale of bonds or other securities would require a file Sales of bonds or capital stock are transactions of the type with the SEC in which the auditor would presumably be that do not provide information with espect to co nditions involved. In addition, the sale would be revealed by reading that existed at the balance sheet date hence, adjustment of the minutes of directors and finance committees meetings, bythe financial statements is not required. However, such sales corresponding with the clients attorneys and by examining may be of sufficient importance to require footnote the cash receipts books in the period subsequent to the disclosure. Occasionally, a situation of this type may have balance sheet date for evidence of unusually large receipts. such a material impact on the entity that the auditor may wish to in the audit report an explanatory paragraph directing the readers attention to the event and its effect. 19-28. (Estimated time 15 minutes) The substantive audit procedures that Young should apply when interrogation for loss contingencies relating to litigation, claims, and assessments include the following Read minutes of meetings of stockholders, directors, and comm ittees. Read get under ones skins, loan agreements, leases, and other documents. Read rest with taxing and other governmental agencies. Read correspondence with insurance and bonding companies. Read confirmation replies information concerning guarantees. Discuss with management the entitys policies and procedures for bring outing, valuating, and accounting for litigation, claims, and assessments. Obtain from management or the clients general counsel a description and evaluation of litigation, claims, and assessments. Obtain written assurance from management that the financial statements include all accruals and disclosures required by Statement on fiscal Accounting Standards No. 5. Examine documents in the clients possession concerning litigation, claims, and assessments, including correspondence from lawyers. Obtain an analysis of professional fee expenses and review supporting invoices for indications of contingencies. Request the clients management to prepare for tran smittal a letter of inquiry to those lawyers consulted by the client concerning litigation, claims, and assessments. Compare the lawyers response to the items in the letter of inquiry to the description and evaluation of litigation, claims, and assessments obtained from management. Determine that the financial statements include proper accruals and disclosures of the contingencies. 19-29. (Estimated time 25 minutes) 1. Disagree. Generally letters dumb on particular aspects of the request letter require follow-up.The auditor should contact the attorney and confirm that he or she intended the letter to completely respond to the request letter and was silent because there were no issues to discuss. Documentation of this confirmation should be included in the working papers. 2. Disagree. A useful evaluation is not always possible. For instance, it may include an element difficult to predict or to which the lawyer may not have paid sufficient attention to make an evaluation. If the m atter involved constitutes a material or contingent liability, the auditor will likely conclude there is an uncertainty with effects on the financial statements that cant be determined, and he or she should consider the effects of that uncertainty on the audit report. 3. Disagree.The attorneys opinion is an manakin of a marginally acceptable opinion. If such an opinion is issued on litigation where loss would seriously invalidate the companys operations, the auditor must give a qualified opinion and possibly consider a disclaimer of opinion. 4. Disagree. In some cases, attorneys, auditors, and clients discuss matters involving litigation, and during such informal discussions some attorneys express their opinions as to the outcome of challenge matters. Such oral opinions should be expressed in writing by the attorney, and if they are not lessen to writing, the discussions generally should not be considered audit evidence. 5. Disagree.The law firm derives all or substantially all o f its fees from the client. This is, in essence, analogous to in-house counsel. Evidence from in-house counsel may provide the auditor with the necessary corroboration in some cases. However, since the liability here is gravid, complete reliance on such evidence is not justified. 19-30. (Estimated time 25 minutes) Other matters that Aldermans representation letter should specifically confirm that The financial statements referred to above are jolly presented in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. We have made available to you all Financial records and related data. Minutes of the meetings of stockholders, directors, and committees of directors, or summaries of actions of recent meetings for which minutes have not yet been prepared. thither are no material transactions that have not been properly recorded in the accounting records underlying the financial statements. There has been no Fraud involving management or employees who have significant roles in internal control. Fraud involving others that could have a material effect on the financial statements. Management believes that the effects of any uncorrected financial statement misstatements aggregated by the auditor during the current engagement and pertaining to the latest period presented are immaterial, both individually and in the aggregate, to the financial statements taken as a whole. The following have been properly recorded or disclosed in the financial statements Related-party transactions, including sales, purchases, loans, transfers, leasing arrangements, and guarantees, and amounts receivable from or payable to related parties. Guarantees, whether written or oral, under which the company is contingently liable. Significant estimates and material concentrations known to management that are required to be disclosed in accordance with the AIcertified public accountants Statement of Position 94-6, Disclosure of Certain Significant Risks and Uncertainties. There are no other liabilities or gain or loss contingencies that are required to be accrued or disclosed by FASB Statement No. 5. The company has satisfactory title to all owned assets, and there are no liens or encumbrances on such assets nor has any asset been assure as collateral. The company has complied with all aspects of contractual agreements that would have a material effect on the financial statements in the event of noncompliance. Debt securities that have been classify as held-to-maturity have been so classified due to the companys intent to hold such securities, to maturity and the companys ability to do so. All other debt securities appropriately have been classified as available-for-sale or trading. Provision has been made to reduce excess or obsolete inventories to their estimated net realizable value. Capital stock reserved for options, warrants, conversions, or other requirements have been properly disclosed. 19-31. (Estimated time 30 minutes) a.The use of overall analytical review at the final stages of an audit has two general advantages to the certified public accountant (1) a broad view is obtained of the date of the financial statements, and (2) the CPAs attention is focused on exceptions or variations in the data. A broad view of the data under audit is needed by the CPA to draw conclusions about the data as a whole. Merely looking at individual transactions may lead the auditor to overlook important variations in the underlying data. The application of analytical procedures to the final data to obtain this broad view requires a discerning analysis of the data, which results in overall conclusions upon which the CPAs audit satisfaction rests. The CPA is thus able to satisfy him or herself as to the reasonableness, validity, and consistency of the data in view of the surround circumstances.The focusing of the CPAs attention on exceptions or variations in the data results in a more cost-efficient and economical audit because there is a r eduction in the amount of detailed testing which would be required, in the absence of overall checks, to uncover these exceptions or variations. Furthermore, manipulations of accounts may be revealed because the double-entry bookkeeping system extends the effects of manipulations to additional accounts, which will then bear a changed relationship to other accounts. In addition, managerial problems and overturn spots will be highlighted for the CPA and may lead to the opportunity to be of additional swear out to the client. b.The ratios that a CPA may compute during an audit as overall checks on balance sheet accounts and related nominal accounts may include the following Accruals of individual expenses to related total expenses. Calculations of the entitys run cycle. Individual components of return on assets and return on equity. The impact of an entitys financing and investing activities. The ability of cash flow from operations to service debt and dividends. Other measure s of the entitys liquidity and solvency. c. 1. The possible reasons for a devolve in the rate of inventory turnover include the following Decline in sales. Increase in inventory quantities, intentional or unintentional. Incorrect computation of inventory because of errors in pricing, extensions, or taking of physical inventory. Inclusion in inventory of slow-moving or obsolete items. Erroneous cutoff of purchases. Erroneous cutoff of sales under the perpetual inventory accounting method. Unrecorded purchases. convert in inventory valuation method. 2. The possible reasons for an increase in the number of days sales in receivable include the following exchange in credit terms. Decreasing sales. Change in the sales mix of products with different sales terms. Change in mix of customers. Improper sales cutoff. Unrecorded sales. Lapping. Slower collections caused by tighter economic conditions or expectant of the quality of the receivables. 19-32. (Estimated time 20 mi nutes) a. Reportable conditions are matters that come to an auditors attention, which, in the auditors judgment, should be communicated to the clients audit committee or its equivalent because they represent significant deficiencies in the design or operation of the internal control structure, which could adversely affect the organizations ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data consistent with the assertions of management in the financial statements.Material weaknesses are reportable conditions in which the design or operation of specific internal control structure elements do not reduce, to a relatively low level, the risk that errors or irregularities in amounts that would be material in relation to the financial statements being audited may occur and not be detected within a timely period by employees in the normal course of performing their assigned functions. b. An auditor is required to identify reportable conditions that come to the auditors attentio n in the normal course of an audit, but is not obligated to search for reportable conditions. The auditor uses judgment as to which matters are reportable conditions. Provided the audit committee has acknowledged its understanding and consideration of such deficiencies and the associated risks, the auditor may decide certain matters do not need to be reported unless, because of changes in management or the audit committee, or because of the passage of time, it is appropriate to do so.Conditions noted by the auditor that are considered reportable should be reported, preferably in writing. If information is communicated orally, the auditor should document the communication. The report should state that the communication is intended solely for the information and use of the audit committee, management, and others within the organization. The auditor may identify and communicate separately those reportable conditions the auditor considers to be material weaknesses, but may not state tha t no reportable conditions were noted during the audit. Reportable conditions may be communicated during the course of the audit rather than after the audit is concluded. depending on the relative significance of the matters noted and -the sine qua non of corrective follow-up action. 19-33. (Estimated time 30 minutes) a. Deficiency Proper Wording 1. In completing our audit In planning and performing our audit 2. Its internal control environment Its internal control structure 3. Not to express an opinion Not to provide assurance 4. The design and effectiveness The internal control structure and its operation of the system 0f internal control 5. Under GAAS Under standards 6. Potential weaknesses Significant 7. To prepare financial To record, process, summarize, and report financial data consistent statements in conformity with the assertions of management in the financial statements. 8. For the audit committee For the information and use of the audit committee, managem ent, and and others others b. A reportable condition may be of such magnitude as to be a material weakness. Thus, all material weaknesses are reportable conditions, but all reportable conditions are not material weaknesses. The two terms are defined as follows Reportable conditions represent significant deficiencies in the design or operation of the internal control structure, which could adversely affect the organizations ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data consistent with the assertions of management in the financial statements. A material weakness is a reportable condition in which the design or operation of the specific internal control structure elements does not reduce to a relatively low level the risk that misstatements in amounts that would be material in relation to the financial statements being audited may occur and not be detected within a timely period by employees in the normal course of performing their assigned functions. c. Two addi tional paragraphs are required when the auditor refers to material weaknesses in the audit report. The first paragraph should include a definition of a material weakness and a description of reportable conditions that are material weaknesses.The second paragraph should describe the limitations of the auditors work i. e. , that the work would not necessarily disclose all reportable conditions that are also material weaknesses. 19-34. (Estimated time 20 minutes) a. nonparasitic auditors use a management letter to call to managements attention matters that the auditor has noted during the course of the audit engagement but which did not fall within the scope of the opinion. The management letter provides an excellent fomite for suggesting value-added services that can assist the business in improving organizational performance. A management letter is rendered as a constructive service to suggest improvements as well as point out deficiencies. b.Many types of information can be covere d in a management letter. The major, broad areas which are presented and discussed in the management letter include Suggestions for modifying and improving a clients internal controls. Recommendations for changes and improvements in accounting systems to better meet managements information needs. Suggestions for improving the management of resources such as cash, inventories, and investments. Comments regarding tax related matters. A detailed deterrent example of a suggestion for improving business practices follows We understand that your accounting system offers discounts to customers who purchase in significant volumes.The program that grants these volume discounts as it prices a sales invoice does so after important information on gross margins has been reported to department managers. While sales invoices and underlying accounting information is correct, it does not agree with management information that is provided to sales managers as they make pricing decisions. As soon as possible you need to change the program that calculates the sales discounts so that gross margins and other information used by sales management includes the volume discounts offered customers. (Answer updated from original ICMA answer. ) 19-35. (Estimated time 30 minutes) a. 1. 1subsequent event during the subsequent event period requiring adjustment. 2. 1subsequent event during the subsequent event period requiring adjustment. 3. subsequent event during the subsequent event period requiring disclosure. 4. 2subsequent event during the subsequent event period requiring disclosure 5. 1subsequent event during the subsequent event period requiring adjustment. 6. 4subsequent event occurring after field work but before issuance of report. 7. 4subsequent event occurring after field work but before issuance of report. 8. 5postaudit discovery of facts existing at date of report. The date field work is completed is not specifically given. This answer is based on the usual practice of d ating the audit report as of the end of field work (i. e. , February 26). b.For categories (1) and (2) the auditor has the responsibility for identifying and evaluating subsequent events up to the date of the auditors report. In discharging this responsibility, the auditor should be alert for subsequent events in performing substantive tests, and also perform specific auditing procedures at or near the completion of field work. For categories (3) and (4), the auditor has no responsibility to make inquiry or to perform any auditing procedures during this time period to discover subsequent events. However, if knowledge of such an event comes to the auditors attention, he or she should determine whether the event requires adjustment of or disclosure in the financial statements. For phratry (5), the auditor has no responsibility for their discovery.However, if the auditor becomes aware of such facts and the facts may have affected the report that was issued, the auditor is required to ascertain the reliability of the information. c. Information about the items would be obtained from the following 1. Inquiry of management client rep letter. 2. Review of bad debt write-offs in January. 3. recital of minutes. 4. Observation of fire newspaper account of fire inquiry of management. 5. Inquiry of management lawyers letter and client rep letter. 6. Reading of minutes. 7. Newspaper story on takeover inquiry of management. 8. Inquiry of management lawyers letter and client rep letter.If the client fails to make required disclosure, the auditor should notify each member of the board of directors of such refusal and take the following steps to prevent further reliance on the audit report and Notify the client that the audit report must no longer be associated with the financial statements. Notify regulatory agencies having jurisdiction over the client that the report should no longer be relied on. Notify (generally via the regulatory agency) each individual known to be r elying on the statements that the report should no longer be relied on. Cases 19-36. follow up separate file with answers to the comprehensive case related to the audit of Mt. Hood Furniture that is included with this chapter. air Several revisions were made to this problem to correct printing errors. The revised problem is posted on the disciple resources website. 19-37. (Estimated time 25 minutes) a. and b. 1. The state governments approval of a plan for the construction of an express highway would have come to the CPAs attention through inquiries of officers and key personnel, mental testing of the minutes of the meetings of the board of directors and stockholders, and reading local newspapers. The details of the item would not have to be disclosed as a separate footnote because all fixed assets of the corporation, including the right to the condemnation award, were to be sold as of March 1, 19X1. 2.It is improbable that the CPA would gather up the source of the $25,000 u nless it were revealed in a discussion with the president or his personal accountant, or unless the auditor prepared the presidents personal income tax return, in which case the interest charges would have led to his investigation of the use to which the specie were put. Setting out the loan in the balance sheet as a loan from an officer would be sufficient disclosure. The source from which the officer obtained the funds would not be disclosed because it is the officers personal business and has no effect upon the corporations financial statements. Indeed, disclosure of the funds source cogency be construed as detrimental to the officer. 3. The additional liability for the ore shipment would have been revealed by CPAs scanning of January transactions. The CPAs regular xamination of 19XO transactions and related documents such as purchase contracts would have caused him or her to note the item for subsequent follow-up to determine the final liability. In addition, the clients lette r of representation big businessman have mentioned the potential liability. The item would not require separate disclosure by footnote or otherwise and would be handled by adjusting the financial statement accounts payable by the amount of the additional charge, $9,064 4. The CPA might learn of the agreement to purchase the treasurers stock ownership through inquiries of management and legal counsel, examination of the minutes of the meetings of the board of directors and stockholders, and subsequent reading of the agreement. The absence of the treasurer might also arouse the CPAs curiosity.The details of the agreement would be disclosed in a footnote because the use of company cash for the repurchase of stock and the change in the amount of stock held by stockholders might have a heavy impact on subsequent years financial statements. Usually a management change, such as the treasurers resignation, does not require disclosure in the financial statements. The details underlying the interval (personal disagreements and divorce) should not be disclosed because they are personal matters. 5. Through inquiries of management, review of financial statements for January, scanning of transactions, and observations, the CPA would learn of the reduced sales and of the strike.Disclosure would not be made in the financial statements of these conditions because such disclosure might create doubt as to the reasons therefore and misleading inference might be drawn. 6. The contract with Mammoth Industries would come to the CPAs attention through inquiries of management and legal counsel, reading the minutes of the meetings of the board of directors and stockholders, and examination of the contract. All important details of the contract should be disclosed in a footnote because of the great effect upon the corporations future. The factors contributing to the entry into the contract need not be disclosed in the statements man they might be of interest to readers, hey are by no means essential to make the statements not misleading. 19-38. (Estimated time 25 minutes) The omissions, ambiguities, and inappropriate statements and terminology in Browns letter are as follows The action that fused intends to take concerning each suit (for example, to contest the matter vigorously, to seek an out-of-court settlement, or to appeal an adverse decision) is omitted. A description of the progress of each case to date is omitted. An evaluation of the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome of each case is omitted. An estimate, if one can be made, of the amount or range of potential loss of each case is omitted. The various other pending or threatened litigation on which Young was consulted is not identified and included. The unasserted claims and assessments probable of assertion that have a reasonable possibility of an unfavorable outcome are not identified. Consolidateds understanding of Youngs responsibility to advise Consolidated concerning the disclosure of u nasserted possible claims or assessments is omitted. Materiality (or the limits of materiality) is not addressed. The reference to a limitation on Youngs response due to confidentiality is inappropriate. Young is not requested to identify the nature of and reasons for any limited response. Young is not requested to include matters that existed after December 31, 1992, up to the date of Youngs response. The date by which Youngs response is needed is not indicated. The reference to Youngs response possibly being quoted or referred to in the financial statements is inappropriate. Vague terminology such as slight and some venture is included where remote and possible are more appropriate. There is no inquiry about any unpaid or unbilled charges, services, or disbursements. Research Questions For the reasons specified in the introduction to this manual, solutions are not provided for this category of questions.