Saturday, August 31, 2019
Human resource departments are responsible for effectively, legally, fairly, and consistently attempting to maximize an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s return on its human capital investment while minimizing financial risk. This is why labor laws and Civil Acts are placed in the work place and other felicities to insure the well fare of others are without risk and effective(WGU). Analysis of Situation A In every situation all bases need to be covered and all information gathered before any request is finalized. It is necessary to establish whether the employee qualified for the leave and whether the terms as stipulated under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) were actually met. The Act requires that for one to benefit from the leave he or she must have worked with the employer for more than 12 months. Employee A had worked for 2 years and it can be deduced that he had successfully completed at least 1250 hours at the work place. The rationale of the law is to make it possible for one to accomplish his professional obligations and personal ones without having to choose one at the expense of another. The reason for the leave must be for the care of a family member who has a serious health condition or oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own health condition. Employee A asked for the leave to take care of his wife who had prematurely given birth to twins. In fact, this is one of the reasons listed in the FMLA for this type of leave. It is not difficult to discern that this is a serious medical condition which requires continuous care of the patient. Therefore, employee A should not be subjected to any victimization upon his request of leave. Focusing on the duration of the leave, an employee is entitled to up to 12 weeks of this type of leave, so long as the right paperwork is provided. Employee A had been out for 11 weeks, hence, was still within the statutory period of 12 weeks. Since the issue of paper work is not a concern under this situation, I have confidence that he supplied all the required documentation. The employee must be reinstated to the same position he held before the leave, so long as heÃ still is able to perform the essential function of the job. Employee A was still able to perform the functions of the job. Hence, he was reinstated to his former position. On the issue of pay during the leave, the Act does not require employers to pay the employees during the leave but any arrangement to the contrary must, however, be respected. Since, there was no agreement to this effect with the employer; the manager is under no obligation to pay the withheld salary for the 11 weeks. The new manager in withholding the salary did not breach any law and this decision cannot be properly said to be discriminatory laws, in this case FMLA (Lau & Lisa, 2013). Analysis of Situation B General laws of Human Rights are captured in the U.S. constitution. The Civil Rights are contained in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The specifics of employment law are contained in various federal statutes that address specific issues in employment law. The employment law to be considered in the current situation is the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA). The brief statement of the facts regarding employee B is that he was 68 years of age and had served Company X for 42 years and was assessed to be above average on his performance. He was allegedly not promoted because of his age with the company preferring a younger employee of 32 years who received a performance review of adequate. First of all, Company X is bound by the Act, since it had 75 employees which is way above the minimum requirement of 20 employees. As such, Company X in hiring, promoting or firing its employees must pay due regard to the requirements of the Act. Secondly, employee B is currently 68 years old, meaning that he is protected by the Act which states that it protects workers above the age of 40. If the assessment of both employees revealed that the older one was still performing better than the younger one then it would be hard to find a genuine reason for the promotion of the younger employee. Additionally, the situation does not fall under the exception of Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) stipulated in the Act. Under this exception, a younger employee can be preferred to an older one if it is objectively established and to some extent obvious that the job cannot be effectively performed by the older employee. In view of the foregoing, I rest upon the conclusionÃ that there was discrimination on the basis of age in selection of the younger employee for the promotion at the expense of employee B. The fact that the employee was not asked to sign an ADEA waiver or any document to the effect confirms my position. Age was the Ã¢â¬Ëbut forÃ¢â¬â¢ reason for lack of promotion of the employee (Lau & Lisa, 2013). Analysis of Situation C The only purpose that Company X gave for failure to hire employee C was that such a move would have been costly to the company. Therefore, I would assume that the employee was qualified for the job as the applicable statue (Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990) applies to qualified but disabled persons. Consequently, it cannot be doubted that employee C was qualified for the job. Secondly, the Act gives considerations of whether the disabled person can perform the essentials of the job. Under this test it would be understandable when a company fails to hire a blind person as a driver. This is impossible since such a person cannot perform the essential functions of the job. Accordingly, the Act also permits the failure to hire a disabled person if it will require reasonable accommodation in order to perform the job. The essential function of the job would be incompatible with employee CÃ¢â¬â¢s situation and as such the level of accommodation required was too high. Company XÃ¢â¬â¢s decision not to hire employee C does not amount to discrimination but an instance of genuine distinction. The adjustments needed to accommodate employee C would be too much and, therefore, the decision not to hire him is not discriminatory against him. As a result, employees are more protected since they are the fragile parties in the employment contract bargain. This is because employees can be exploited by ill-intentioned employers. As such employment laws together with other human rights laws take care of employees. The laws also protect the interests of employers by lining the duration of certain leaves, qualifications for some benefits as discussed above and hiring of employees on the basis of merit and not any other considerations. (Lau & Lisa, 2013). Work Cited Page 1.Lau T.S. & Lisa J.A. (2013) The Legal and Ethical Environment of Business. New York: Flat World Knowledge Inc.
Friday, August 30, 2019
CassiusÃ¢â¬â¢ Domino Effect The divine lightning that rules our lives has always made us both the protagonist and the victim. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy, Julius Caesar, he focuses on the actions and results in the play that occur in a domino effect, with characters that set forth events that lead to great suffering. In Julius Caesar, Cassius is the tragic figure who contributes to the vision of the conspirators as a whole, but through the Ã¢â¬Å"divine lighting,Ã¢â¬ matters could not be helped.CassiusÃ¢â¬â¢s personality leads to his, and many others, fatal downfall. CassiusÃ¢â¬â¢s is seen as the leader of the conspirators, the manipulative master behind the cruel plan. He, with many others, disdain Caesar for his arrogance, yet Cassius encompasses the same exact trait. His arrogance is shown in Act I, when he and Brutus are talking, and Cassius notices the unease in BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes when they believe Caesar is crowned. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"I was born as free as Ca esar,Ã¢â¬ (1. 2, 104).In this speech Cassius is trying to convey the idea that Brutus is as good as Caesar so that Brutus will be more inclined to join the conspiracy, but Cassius uses the first comparison of Caesar to explain that Caesar is no better than he. His cunning, manipulative nature bleeds through in his very first speech, his arrogance is clearly shown and his motives laid down. CassiusÃ¢â¬â¢ jealousy leads to his revulsion of Caesar. Only CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death being the answer to CassiusÃ¢â¬â¢ insecurities. The cunning manipulation Cassius practices affects everybody in the play.Cassius manipulation so purely spoken by Brutus when he proclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"What dangers would you lead me, Cassius/That you would have me seek into myself/ For that which is not in me? Ã¢â¬ (1. 2, 69-71). BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ jealousy of Caesar had not yet progressed to the level of malevolence, but as Brutus said Cassius spurns him on selfishly to mold him into what benefits him the most. Brut us is troubled at first, unsure what to do, and his odd behavior aggravates Portia, causing her to grieve because of the knowledge she does not know.Once the conspiracy is revealed to her she becomes edgy, and the arrival of Octavius sends her into a fit of stress which ends with her swallowing Ã¢â¬Å"fire. Ã¢â¬ CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death is the main source of suffering, but Caesars anguish is not because of his death. His suffering is revealed in the moments before he dies, he utters the most memorable line in history, he cries, Ã¢â¬Å"Et tu Brute? Ã¢â¬ (3. 1, 85). This is the cause of CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s complete death, the death of not just his body but of his trust.Caesar could handle the betrayal of the other senators, because that is politics, but the betrayal of someone he viewed as a friend, someone he loved, destroyed him. AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, causing the most wide spread wave of despair, leads the Romans to exclaim, Ã¢â¬Å"O noble Caesar! / O woeful day! . . . We will be r evenged,Ã¢â¬ (3. 2, 211-214). Their anger then leads to the suffering of many, even the innocent, as is exampled with the Poet CinnaÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The pristine control Cassius prides himself with, slips and turns Cassius into anything but the victor in this war of superiority.After CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death Brutus becomes the leading face of the conspirators, leaving Cassius without even the pride of that small feat. Brutus becomes the leading face of the conspirators so now Cassius cannot even pride himself with that. When Cassius and Brutus fight, thinking the other has deceived them, Cassius falters, Ã¢â¬Å"Cassius is aweary of the worldÃ¢â¬â/ Hated by the ones he loves, braved by his brother/ . . . / Strike as thou didst at Caesar, for I know/ When thou didst hate him worst, thou I lovedst him better/ Than ever thou lovedst Cassius,Ã¢â¬ (4. , 106-119). Cassius jealousy still remains, despite CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The feeling of unworthiness still runs deep, he feels like he still canÃ¢â¬â¢t compare to Caesar and it is tearing him apart. In the end though, through another misunderstanding, Cassius believes that the battle has been lost and his close friend, Titinius has been captured, he exclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"O coward that I am to live so long/ To see my best friend taÃ¢â¬â¢en before my face! Ã¢â¬ (5. 3, 36-37). Ironically as Caesar has lost his best friend so has Cassius, which leads to his conflicted death.In the end Cassius is the conductor of his own suffering. It was Frye who wisely proclaimed that the tragic heroes seem the inevitable conductors of power, yet they become the both the instrument and victim of the Ã¢â¬Å"divine lighting. Ã¢â¬ Cassius is seen as the leader of the conspirators leading him to contribute to the vision of the conspirators as a whole, but through his choices he causes the suffering of many including himself. Revenge is bittersweet.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Throughout the speech, Obama maintains the theme of small things being able to grow into anything. In the section entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Victory for the PeopleÃ¢â¬ , this is very much present, as he describes how his campaign Ã¢â¬Å"didn't start with much moneyÃ¢â¬ , and didn't begin in grand government buildings in the country's capital, but Ã¢â¬Å"in the backyards of Des MoinesÃ¢â¬ ¦and the front porches of CharlestonÃ¢â¬ . He talks about how working people scraped together Ã¢â¬Å"what little savings they hadÃ¢â¬ to contribute small amounts of money to the cause. Obama describes how the campaign became stronger because of the millions of Americans, young and old, who volunteered and created support for his cause. All of this creates an image of unity and limitless possibility for anyone who wants to have success in life. This, of course, is reflected in Obama's own improbable story, having been a mixed-race Kenyan-American raised by his grandparents and having relatively little political experience, yet managing to be elected president of the most influential and powerful country in the world. Obama adds to his message of unity by describing his victory as Ã¢â¬Å"your victoryÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â meaning that it is the American people who have brought about this change and who have managed to get their voices heard; although he is the one standing on the podium making an acceptance speech, it was them who succeeded in putting him there. Obama invokes images of unity throughout his speech. Multiple times, he refers to his country as the Ã¢â¬Å"United States of AmericaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â using the full name though the abbreviation Ã¢â¬Å"USAÃ¢â¬ or just Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬ would have been sufficient. He talks about their Ã¢â¬Å"common purposeÃ¢â¬ and uses Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ to instil a sense of togetherness in his audience. He tries to include all types of people in his message Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"young and old, rich and poor, Democrat and Republican, black, white, Hispanic, Asian, Native AmericanÃ¢â¬ ¦disabled and not disabledÃ¢â¬ . He even includes Ã¢â¬Å"gay [or] straightÃ¢â¬ people in his list, showing an unusual amount of tolerance for a to-be American president. All of this introduces an extremely likeable, human element to his character. This approachable, human manner is maintained throughout the speech. Although Obama has been elected to be the single most powerful human being in the world, he does not attempt to put on a cold, macho faÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ade. He refers to his wife as Ã¢â¬Å"the love of my lifeÃ¢â¬ , and, clearly getting emotional, he tells his girls, Ã¢â¬Å"I love you both more than you can imagineÃ¢â¬ and promises them a new puppy when they move into the White House. He also refers to his grandmother, who had died the night before, which invokes sympathy and appeals to the emotions of those listening and watching him. Towards the end of his speech, Obama repeats his most famous line, which the crowd has been shouting at him all night, and which sums up his story and message in three words: Ã¢â¬Å"Yes we can.Ã¢â¬ In my opinion, these words, and the whole of Obama's speech, hold a promise of change which America now has a chance of keeping. His words make me hopeful for what lies ahead in the years of Barack Obama's presidency to come.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Personal Leadership Style - Term Paper Example According to Austin (2009), nurse leaders must be in a position to meditate on the emotions of their workmates as well as formulate ways in which they can deal with arising differences in the workplace. This paper shall assess my potential as a nurse leader and how I plan to use these strengths to be a nurse leader in the future. Among my leadership styles include my ability to learn, responsibility, strategicness, achiever and discipline. These leadership styles have been derived from my strength finder leadership styles. Learner According to Austin (2009), nurses in the contemporary world are expected to face a myriad of challenges in the course of duty. In this case, they are left with no alternative, but to portray efficient leadership skills if the healthcare delivery system has to be successful. In this case, the nurse as a leader has to be committed in their job as they are placed at the center of provision of healthcare services (Clark, 2008). In the course of duty, I learn a lot through reflection. Every weekend, I have clinicals in the hospital. After attending the clinicals every weekend, I grasp a lot from the sessions. In an instance whereby my fellow nurses are enlightened on the need to be discrete about patient information, I am forced to research on the topic by reading several books. After the research, I am able to relate the same in my practice as a nurse. My learning progress is seen through my practical approach in the health facility. By the end of my nursing course in May this year, I will have learnt a great deal about the profession. I have worked a lot in the telecommunication industry, and it is my ability and zeal to learn as a leader, that has seen my tremendous input and performance in the nursing profession. My journey towards attaining a degree in nursing has indeed been faced with a numerous drawbacks. A leader, as seen in the research report compiled by Green (2013), must be the blueprint of change in the course of duty. In th is instance, I will be ardent to come up with new strategies of handling issues in the health institution, and be consistent in following up the implementation of the same policies. For instance, since the standards of practice in nursing are constantly changing, advising the nurses on the need to conduct more research on the changes through online tutorials, reading books and journals will be of great importance for the nurses. The challenge to see the change in my workplace motivates me the more and leads to me to an anticipation of my exemplary performance through learning and disseminating the same information. I will also remain loyal to the other workmates who made my learning a success especially because I cannot handle everything as an individual. In the event that the organization has the ability to cater for my expenses of providing the reading materials and links to the online tutorial classes, the same would be beneficial on my side as my learning will be financed in a w ay or another. In the event that I can advance my educational skills, this would be of great assistance as I can apply the acquired skills to the betterment of the health facility (Green, 2013). In the long run, the medication error and infection control will be under check, since these are the major issues in the nursing setting (Claborn & Zerwekh, 2003). I honor my desire to learn, and as a leader, I will endeavor to enroll for a course whenever I get the chance, as time in oneÃ¢â¬â¢
An introduction to business and management - Assignment Example is responsible for how tasks are done in the organization as it facilitates and puts into action all the directives that have come from the management of the organization (Functions of Human Resource Department, n.d). This implies that realization of organizational objectives and goals, which determines the performance of the organization, is in the responsibility of the HR department. To fulfill these goals, the HR department has various functions that are delegated to it. First, it has the responsibility of hiring new talent to fill specific spots in the organization. This is one of the most important roles of the HR department because it helps an organization in acquiring a set of skills that it requires. This comes with other objectives that include retention, which is determined by how the HR department treats the employees. The right set of skills is responsible for raising an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s profile and even in acquiring a competitive strategy. Second, the HR department trains and develops the employees. Following recruitment, this department trains the employees to acquire skills for performing in various segments of the organization. Third, HR department also plays the role of compensating the employees according to performance. Rewarding systems are developed according to organizations where some allow employees to suggest the rewards they would li ke while others are dictated. This department also has other roles such as determining salaries, dismissal, and safety of employees (Mayhew & Demand Media, 2015). Being a multinational business, Tesco should use online and social media recruitment as its key external recruitment method and emails as internal recruitment methods. External recruitment methods such as online recruitment have a key advantage of providing a wide pool of qualified individuals to choose from. In addition, this gives the organization a new set of skills and it is affordable because social media is free for most entities (Kleynhans,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS - Essay Example It does not opt for any visual advertisement Ã¢â¬â print or media. Its organization structure is divisional in nature and it pays due attention to the environmental security and safety of its employees and non- employees. It is recommended that the company should pay more attention to advertising. It should launch itself into billboard and newspaper advertising which are cheaper and efficient ways of advertising to create brand recall. It should also make use of its website to spread the word of mouth. A major limitation of this project is the unavailability of the financial data. Inspite of repeated attempts to procure the data from the organization, the authors of this report were unable to fetch any data beyond 2004-2005. The report aims at highlighting particulars of the company with respect to its marketing, operations, finance and environmental aspects. It encompasses the background/history of the company, its present activities and its future business plans. Stone & Ceramic Ltd is involved in the design, fabrication, supply, installation & maintenance of natural stones, porcelain, mosaic, ceramic tiles & slab format. It has supplied its products and services in various business sectors such as transportation, hotels, residential, commercial, government, leisure, refurbishment and retail. Its exposure to various sectors speaks for its vast range of products/services. Their Ã¢â¬Ëobjective is to develop into a Specialist dual trade, (Stonework & Tiling) Contractor that operates in the mid to high sector market for Primary repeat ClientsÃ¢â¬â¢ ( Stone & Ceramic Ltd., 2009) To achieve its stated objectives, the company strives to make its contracts comprehensive enough to convey the range of services offered and maintain an acceptable clear price for the works in the contracts. It makes efforts to honour the contracts as per the agreed quality and time. The company believes that the contracts should reflect
Monday, August 26, 2019
The Duality of Human Nature - Essay Example The Duality of Human Nature So manÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental nature must play a part in the duality of human nature. In the end, it comes down to the path an individual decides upon despite being influenced by society and manÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental nature. The Curious Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a perfect example of the duality of human nature. Many people have pondered why some people give into their evil nature, and others give in to their good nature. A reader might have the same question about Dr. Jekyll. Why did Dr. Jekyll give in to Mr. Hyde? A Cherokee legend gives the best answer: An old Cherokee is teaching his grandson about life. "A fight is going on inside me," he said to the boy. "It is a terrible fight and it is between two wolves. One is evil - he is anger, envy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego." He continued, "The other is good - he is joy, peace, love, hope, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion, and faith. The same fight is going on inside you - and inside every other person, too." The grandson thought about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather, "Which wolf will win?" The old Cherokee simply replied, "The one you feed." The answer is clear; Dr. Jekyll fed Mr. Hyde more than he fed Dr. Jekyll. Every time Dr. Jekyll drank the potion, he fed his evil side, or Mr. Hyde. The first time he drank the potion, Dr. Jekyll felt Ã¢â¬Å"at the first breath of this new life, to be more wicked, tenfold more wickedÃ¢â¬ .
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Shay's Rebellion - Essay Example (151). Washington indicates that the then Americans did not enjoy liberty and security in their livelihood (151). Drafting of a constitution that will champion for the needs of all citizens in the country, and one that will closely be adhered to, by all in the administration posts (151). This Washington quotes, to prevent incroachments and promote respect in the country. In the letter it is evident that the then president has numerous fears that what the American was wary of at that particular time has numerous elements of truth and verity. In the chapter, Washington is indicated to verify that what he had dreamt of what had come to pass (David &Mayer, 152). From his letter, it is evident that; In the letter, Washington laments to Knox on the behavior of rebels of Massachusetts (152). Though he advises Knox to respect the insurgents and keep advising them, Washington hopes for a better day in America. Besides the allegations of corruption, which Washington claims, to have taken the headlines in the Newspapers, Washington is wary that Americans may not be bright enough to notice other ills that may be inflicted on them. David & Mayer indicate that Washington is more than convinced that the ignorance in the Americans has augmented to an extent of them forgetting the virtues of the one prestigious and mighty country (152). The need to amend the Federal constitution has become an obvious case. To prove this, Washington is seen to have a lot of confidence in the position and the ability of Knox to minimize the chances of the occurrence of bitter confrontations in the state. Need for change in the public administration .Though Washington indicates that Knox is not exact in the type of change needed for this society; KnoxÃ¢â¬â¢s letter indicates chances of his contribution in effecting change. Washington advocates for complete vigilance and vigor in pushing for reforms in the country. This he confirms in the
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Outline the main elements in Karl Marxs social theory and examine the strengths and weaknesses of his theory. Explain why Marxs social theory has had such a - Essay Example Ideologies in this context refer to the values, feelings and ideas by which people perceive their particular societies which the upper-class controls so as to prevent people in the lower-class from knowing how society truly operates. For example, literature can be used to form a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology as was prevalent in eighteenth century England. The fundamental conception behind Marxism is identified as materialism, socialism and the unification of action and structure. MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s idealistic view of socialism involved actions that would better serve society within the realm of unselfish inspiration, a society not interested in existing social inclinations. The wealth of a nation should be divided not according to greed but to need. He sees the technological advances as the basis for entire societies to be redistributed in accordance to the requirements of the upper class. Marx Ã¢â¬Å"sees the source of these changes in changing technologies, Ã¢â¬Ëproductive relations,Ã¢â¬ â¢ which bring changes in the way people are organised or Ã¢â¬Ësocial relations.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Sowell, 1985: 70). His theory does not suggest philosophical concerns or the study of social structures alone but the actions necessary to implement social change as well. One of the most often used axioms in the Marxist ideology is that their ambition is Ã¢â¬Ënot to study society but to change it.Ã¢â¬â¢ According to Applebaum (1988: 15), society should Ã¢â¬Å"understand how Marx sought to bridge the concerns of both philosophy and science in developing a theory that operates simultaneously at the levels of structure and action [Ã¢â¬ ¦] the philosophic critique of consciousness, the Ã¢â¬ËscientificÃ¢â¬â¢ analysis of capitalist economic institutions, and the historical study of politics and society.Ã¢â¬ This is the intent of this discussion along with identifying various strengths and weaknesses of the theory and to examine the reasons why MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s social theory has
Friday, August 23, 2019
How does modern technology affect socialization for worse - Annotated Bibliography Example This article is from the center for educational research and innovation looking for the impact that technology has in the society. The aim is to establish the attributes that affect the young learners based on the introduction of technology in schools. It understands that the best way of dealing with such attributes is by understanding that the policies in the educational sector require updating to keep students in the right frame of mind when dealing with schoolwork. This article is crucial in establishing whether the introduction of technology in school impacts kids negatively and how policies could assist in making the society better. The changes are examined while the emerging responses will be weighed to check on the impact this has on the society as a whole. The article approaches the aspect of technology evolution from both a positive and negative direction. The aim is to examine the main attributes that redefine the growing need for an understanding of the impact that technology has in the society. Many people assume that the innovations are all good, yet the demerits warrant some examination to shield the children from missing the benefits of socialization. The article will be a good addition to the topic of discussion because it will open up the need to examine what innovations do to the society and how the increasing need to compile this in the digital dictionaries is affecting the way children converse. It is becoming a common practice to find children using short codes such as lol for laughing out loud, and this can affect their conversations in the future or determine the new way they socialize. The author notes that the inclusion of technology in learning has been a viable and inexpensive solution to many of the developed countries. This means that more schools are adapting these mechanisms in their
Thursday, August 22, 2019
African American Injustice Essay Ã¢â¬Å"In the eyes of white Americans, being black encapsulates your identity. Ã¢â¬ In reading and researching the African American cultural group, this quote seemed to identify exactly the way the race continues to still be treated today after many injustices in the past. It is astonishing to me that African Americans can still stand to be treated differently in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. In reading Ã¢â¬Å"Blacks in AmericaÃ¢â¬ , Andrew Hacker states that Ã¢â¬Å"being black in America has consequences in areas of: wealth, identity, raising children, occupational opportunities, place of residence, and treatment in the criminal justice system. Ã¢â¬ To be honest, and I feel bad saying that I already knew this was happening to African Americans. I have heard stories of blacks not getting jobs; regardless of how qualified they are for the position, because of the color of their skin. I have heard stories, and even witness black children getting picked on in school because of the simple fact that they are black. I watched a video in school where a black family moved into a white neighborhood, and before long all the white families had moved out because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want a black family in their neighborhood. This was confirmed by Hacker in my research in the quote, Ã¢â¬Å"Almost all residential areas are entirely black or white. Ã¢â¬ I have also seen videos of African American men getting beaten by white arresting officers, and have heard stories of many black men being stereotyped by policemen. This must be why Hacker states Ã¢â¬Å"When white people hear the cry, Ã¢â¬Å"the police are coming! Ã¢â¬ it almost always means, Ã¢â¬Å"Help is on the way. Ã¢â¬ However blacks cannot make the same assumption. Ã¢â¬ These are all reports and events that I think the average American has seen before, but yet most people, including myself, continue to just shrug of and ignore. I guess itÃ¢â¬â¢s something that I might have subconsciously accepted, or maybe refused to think more deeply about. In reading and researching, I reaffirmed knowledge that I refused to take a greater note of. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t say I learned anything new, because I knew what I wanted to focus on. A quote from Andrew HackerÃ¢â¬â¢s article summarizes the above best, Ã¢â¬Å"In the eyes of white Americans, being black encapsulates your identity. Ã¢â¬ It may be easy to tell how I am going to focus this anthology. I am going to focus it on the injustices that African Americans continue to face in the United States today. That being, I know exactly what I need to get out of my interviewees, but it is probably a sensitive subject for some of the people I need to interview. I am not black, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what it feels like to face this discrimination in everyday life. I can understand the tenderness that African Americans must feel then, when revealing and talking about their experiences with discrimination. I would think then, that it must be especially sensitive to talk about with a person from the race that they receive this everyday discrimination. It will be interesting to hear all the different types of prejudice that my interviewees have received throughout their lives. I would imagine that it ranges from just a look, or the way white Americans act around them, to voiced and physical altercations between themselves and white Americans. Hacker at times seems to be speaking directly to African Americans as he describes these altercations, Ã¢â¬Å"So many of the contacts you have with them (white Americans) are stiff and uneasy, hardly worth the effort. Ã¢â¬ But to me, that is exactly what the problem is. Why would it not be worth the effort? The first step to take for the uneasiness between the two races to cease to exist is for us (all people) to stop seeing color because once we act differently around the other is where all the problems seem to start. The second step is to make these contacts worth the effort. If we choose to continue to stay in our own comfortable circle of race, when is the problem ever going to end? The answer is never. My opinion as a white 18 year old is that most of the blame lies on the white race. Imagine being eyed every time you go into a store, having your car searched for no reason, or greeted warily at restaurants all because the color of your skin is different. We ignore this daily discrimination because no cares enough anymore to take notice that it happens every hour, every day somewhere in the United States. Will it ever stop? Not until we each take the steps to make it. A recent census commercial IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen said Ã¢â¬Å"We (United States) canÃ¢â¬â¢t move forward until you mail it back. Ã¢â¬ I believe that our country canÃ¢â¬â¢t move forward and truly be great until we make sure these daily iscriminations are eliminated from our society. In this project, I will interview African Americans on their personal experiences with discrimination, how they handle it, and if they think anything can be done about this problem. Sources: Andrew. 1999. Blacks in America. Pp. 160-168 in The Meaning of Sociology, 6th ed. , edited by Joel Charon. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. A Time to Kill. Dir. Joel Schumacher. 1996. African American History. University of Washington Libraries. Web. 02 Apr. 2010. .
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The voltage in will change Essay Aim: I am going to carry out an investigation to find how the resistance of Resistor 1 affects the output voltage of a potential divider circuit There are several different factors that can affect the voltage out, when the resistance of Resistor 1 is changed. List of key factors 1. Voltage in 2. Voltage out 3. Resistor 1 I have chosen resistor 1 because, it is an advanced experiment, and will give me much to investigate/analyse and so I shall choose this variable. And I will be able to see just how the resistance affects the Voltage out (Vout. ) 4. Resistor 2 5. Resistor 1 and 2 6. Length of the wire 7. Type of wire. 8. Ammeter (The equipment used to measure the voltage) 9. Voltmeter 10. Digital multi-meter 11. Material of wire 12. Cross section of wire These factors if not controlled can affect the experiment and give me false data. The other factors must be controlled to make sure that I am measuring the affects of the correct (input variable) that I have chosen, (in this case the resistance of resistor 1. ) These factors are known as the control variables and they give you something to compare your results with, (and make your experiment repeatable, as you will have kept the conditions for your experiment the same. ) The output variable is the variable that will change due to the input variable in this case the Voltage out. (The other factors are mainly kept the same for accuracy. ) In my experiment I will be using a potential divider circuit (A circuit diagram of two fixed resistors in series. They can be used to split the voltage of a circuit) to find out how changing the resistance of Resistor 1 affects the total output voltage of a potential divider circuit. I will take all possible variables into consideration and I will try to make this experiment one which will create reliable and as accurate results. The experiment will be carried out in the school science lab where I will record the results and then conclude my experiment to prove whether my hypothesis correct or false. I predict that, when the resistance for Resistor 1 is increased the voltage out (Vout) will decrease. I know this because, the more atoms and electrons there are in a wire, the harder it is for the electrons (the current) to get past the atoms (the resistance) and around the circuit to the positive end. Diagram of an atom The nucleus of an atom consists of neutrons (neutral) and protons (positively charged), which are in a fixed stationary position. The electrons (negatively charged) on the outer shells however can move freely at high speeds. What is current? A metal wire is made of metal atoms; most metal atoms have one or two electrons in their outer energy level. When there is no conducted electricity present, the electrons will and can move freely in any direction. (Diagram of a metal compound, electrons moving freely, purple: electrons. Green: atoms) Delocalised electrons are spread across more than one atom. Electrons in materials are usually bound to one atom. Atoms are held together by the interactions of the charges on different atoms. In some cases, electrons can be shared between atoms, and are then called delocalised. The electrons will randomly move around the whole molecule structure and we end up with a regular lattice of metal atoms in a Ã¢â¬Å"sea of negatively charged electrons. Ã¢â¬ When electricity is introduced however the negatively charged electrons will instantly begin to move through the wire in the same direction (towards the positively charged end) this is an electric current, a current is the flow of charge in a wire or the movement of the negatively charged electrons through the wire. The electrons move like this because of the voltage (energy/ power) which Ã¢â¬Å"pushesÃ¢â¬ the current around the circuit. The energy is transferred from the power pack to the electrons that will equally share and give out the energy to each component in the circuit. By the time the electron has reached the end of the circuit it will have lost all the energy it will have in gained at the start (energy will be lost through components and resistance. ) Resistance is the opposition that the electrons will experience while flowing through the wire. An electron travelling through the wires encounters resistance. An electron does not travel in a direct route; instead it adopts a zigzag path due to the countless collisions with the atoms in the conducting material. When electrons move against the resistance, friction is generated. The friction produced by electrons flowing against the resistance will cause the wire to heat. (The hotter the wire, the higher the resistance. ) Resistance depends on the material, cross section and length. Resistance limits the amount of current flowing through the circuit for a given voltage of the power supply. For a circuit to work there must be no breaks, if there is a break then everything stops. An electric charge must also go all the way round the circuit. When a wire heats up they will act differently and a blockage will be made. This is a sign of Resistance. I have chosen to keep the voltage at 12 volts as this is the highest number of volts possible on the power pack. Using a higher voltage In, means that I will get higher results for Vout. I will also be able to record them in numbers that are easy to handle and work with, and a more significant range. Even though I have chosen my voltage to stay at stay 12 volts due to the power packs being not completely accurate, the voltage In will, change because I will be purposefully changing the resistance of the circuit. Everything in a circuit is not mutually exclusive; when one factor is changed every other factor will also change, as they are all interlinked and dependent on each other. As I know that the Voltage In will change, I will make sure that every time I test the resistance of the circuit I will also check the voltage of the circuit and record the result for that down too.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Iconic Construction Projects: Issues and Controversies Introduction Construction of large, expensive, and prestigious projects is an historical obsession of the human race. Every age of human history, as well as every human civilisation, features huge architectural showpieces (Silverberg, 1965). Religions have used enormous and ornate structures, churches, mosques, and temples, to shock and awe their followers into submission. Many of the ancient and modern seven wonders, e.g., the Coliseum of Rome, the Great Wall of China, or the Taj Mahal, were architectural wonders that were built with massive doses of money, effort, time, and genius (Silverberg, 1965). It took two emperors, ten years, and extensive public taxation to build the Coliseum. The Great Wall was built, over hundreds of years, to protect the Mings against invaders, by generations of architects; who did not foresee that the opening of one of its doors would neutralise centuries of sweat and toil (Silverberg, 1965). The Taj Mahal was built over 16 years with an unlimited budget by an idiosyncratic emperor who failed to connect the irony of amputating the arms of his sculptors (after the erect ion of the Taj) with the building of a monument to the cause of immortal love (Ahmed, 1993). In modern times each of these iconic projects would have been considered to be failures in some aspects, even though they have delivered and continue to deliver numerous benefits. Such awesome projects link humanity over time and distance with common threads of ambition, grandeur, status, and prestige. The construction of the Empire State Building in New York in 1931 set off a race, albeit some four decades later, among other cities, to build something grander and taller, (Cowan, 2007), the title for the tallest building going from skyscraper to tower in different locations until it was grasped in late 2007 by the under construction Burj Dubai, an architectural and construction wonder that will be ready only in 2009. Accepting numerous design modifications and a construction delay of many months, mainly to ensure that their project does not get upstaged in its target of becoming the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s tallest building, the creators of Burj Dubai are motivated by ambitions that are largely iconic. Ã¢â¬Å"Chairman Mohammed Ali Alabbar said Dubai has resisted the usual and has inspired to build a global icon, Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s a human achievement without equal.Ã¢â¬ â¢Ã¢â¬ (Dubai skyscraper worlds tallest, 2008) The urge to undertake iconic construction projects, projects that are commonly associated with size, status, prestige, architectural complexity, and grandeur, is not restricted to the oil rich sheikhdoms of the Middle East, the capitalist bastion of the United States, aggressive young economies like Australia, or the ambitious Asian Tigers. The United Kingdom, long associated with restraint and the virtues of understatement, has its fair share of projects that can be termed iconic; the Millennium Dome, the London Eye, PortsmouthÃ¢â¬â¢s Spinnaker Tower, and LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s Wembley Stadium; to name but a few. Iconic projects are usually undertaken with diverse objectives in mind, e.g., raising the profile of a city, creating a tourist attraction, or even increasing the status of a premier football club; they are normally complex in nature and require substantial outlays of money, long construction periods, large tracts of land, sophisticated construction and construction management skills, involvement of political and non-political organisations, agencies and individuals, and numerous administrative, financial, and legal issues (Prasser, 2006). Always in the arc of media attention, their progress receives inordinate publicity; their failures and successes are widely discussed, debated and often roundly criticised. The amount of controversy and censure that invariably attaches itself to most such projects, as well as their patchy records, can well lead people to believe that Ã¢â¬Å"iconic projects are virtually certain to failÃ¢â¬ . With such sweeping statements possibly appearing to be somewhat naÃ ¯ve to serious students of management and construction, (more so in light of the rapid strides made by the construction management industry in recent years, both in terms of technological advances and in terms of utilisation of management processes), this study attempts to investigate the issue, with the aid of relevant current examples and current construction management theory. Commentary and Analysis A meaningful discussion on the italicised topic calls for logical and relevant structuring. This analytical commentary is structured into sequential sections that take up the determination of failure, as applicable to iconic projects, the various environmental, political, economic and managerial factors that can contribute to such failures, and the measures that can be adopted and implemented to lessen the chances of their happening. The concluding section summarises the discussion and contains appropriate recommendations. Determination of Project Failure A project can be defined as a discrete and predetermined endeavour that has specific commencement and conclusion nodes and is undertaken to construct a quantifiable deliverable (Lewis, 2007). Projects can be initiated in many areas of social, economic and business life and can be classified as iconic in terms of their status, importance, glamour, media friendliness and size. With the topic of this discussion being related to construction, the commentary is focussed on iconic projects that involve substantial construction activity, e.g. stadia, buildings, roads, dams, museums, monuments and the like. Large and prestigious projects in areas like IT or brand building, which can also be truly termed to be iconic, do not find place in this study. A project can be termed to be a failure if it does not meet its objectives (Lewis, 2007). With most modern day projects, especially those that are large and complex, having aims and targets, in terms of physical, cost, and time deliverables, and expected to conform to norms of accountability, transparency, and ethics during their execution, such projects can be deemed to be unsatisfactory if they fail to meet such signposts and requirements (Lewis, 2007). Properly set project objectives, in the language of project management, are expected to meet specific SMARTA criteria, i.e., they should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-Framed, and Agreed (Lewis, 2007). Apart from such objectives, iconic projects have broad aims in terms of what they are expected to achieve and the services they are to provide (Prasser, 2006). The Millennium Dome at Greenwich in the outskirts of London, for example, was conceived as a mega project that was planned to be either a football stadium or a huge convention and exhibition centre (and an attractive tourist destination), after the completion of the Millennium Experience in December, 2000 (Maddox, 2000). The structure, which is the largest of its type in the world, whilst proving to be a huge tourist attraction in 2000, proved to be of little use thereafter. Horrendously expensive to maintain, it remained practically unused during the next five years. Most of its adjacent structures were demolished. Renamed O2 in 2005 it has since been transformed into an entertainment district at a cost of 600 million dollars (Millennium Dome, 2008). The Spinnaker Tower at Portsmouth is another example of an iconic project that has come in for widespread criticism. Reflecting PortsmouthÃ¢â¬â¢s maritime history and designed to resemble a sail, the tower was completed five years after schedule, incurred expenditures far beyond what was originally forecasted, was executed poorly, developed construction defects and was found to be unfriendly towards disabled visitors (Oates, 2006). The London Wheel, on the other hand, which received lesser visitors than the Millennium Dome in 2000, belied pessimistic forecasts and went on to become a hugely successful tourist attraction, redefining LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s skyline and being featured in every Bollywood movie that was shot in London. Projects to be successful should specifically deliver on the wider planned benefits and services. Ã¢â¬Å"The concept of project benefits is central to project success. A project will be deemed successful if it delivers its promised benefits. What about on time and on budget? These are different questions, relating to how well the project is managed. Important as they are, these are not the focus of a quest to clarify objectives. Besides, in the end we would rather have a successful project a little late and over budget than a beautifully managed disaster which fails to deliver on promisesÃ¢â¬ (Writing Project Objectives, 2008, http://www.numerix.com.au/docs/newsletter-articles/writing-project-objectives.htm). Causes for Project Failure Commercial project management, as a discipline, has enlarged significantly in recent years. Imbibing theories and concepts from various sectors of management theory like strategic, human resource (HR), financial, general and environmental management, its evolution has been helped by the progressive sophistication of project management, decision making, monitoring and control techniques (like PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Techniques), CPM (Critical Path Method), Gantt Charts, and Fishbone diagrams) (Richman, 2002). With construction having progressively become one of the biggest business activities in the world, the use of sophisticated management practices, which otherwise originated and were developed in other business sectors like automobile and steel production, is but normal (Richman, 2002). The fact that project construction, especially on the scale of what is being attempted in the modern day, is an extremely complex process that involves political decision making, activist involvement, environmental repercussions, land acquisition, financial organisation, use of sophisticated technology and complex machinery, diverse human skills, and the involvement of numerous agencies, contractors, and subcontractors, results in the emergence of numerous variables, which, individually, and in tandem with others, can lead to partial or complete failure in achievement of project objectives (Richman, 2002). Despite the existence of numerous related and independent factors that can effectively hinder the success of projects, management experts feel it advisable to group and analyse these variables under specific categories. Again, whilst project management experts and project consulting organisations by and large appear to have their own interpretation of reasons behind failures of large and prestigious projects, they are united on some major causal factors. Problems in Project Initiation The most important of these causal factors arise during the initiation of the project, a process that in the case of iconic projects is likely to include issues of political governance, harmonisation of expectations of different stakeholders, environmental requirements, cost estimation, organisation of finances, selection of management team, and crystallisation of broad project objectives, benefits, and services, as well as its SMARTA criteria (Lewis, 2007). Ambiguity about any of these factors, especially at the initiation stage can lead to the perpetuation of uncertainties in objectives, as the project progresses, and inadequate or inappropriate managerial inputs at later times (Lewis, 2007). Large projects, more often those that are public in nature, or involve public private participation, need clarity in political approach, inter-departmental involvement, and decision making; the lack of which can lead to continuing snags in project implementation. The Millennium Dome, projected as the most celebrated iconic project of the beginning of the Millennium, went over budget by more than 200 million GBP and lay idle for five years after 2000 (Millennium Dome, 2008). It was mired in political and public controversy regarding its cost, design, and content right from project inception; developments that definitely contributed to unsteadiness in its management and leadership and uncertainty in its execution. Whilst the initiation stage of the project in matters of time is often much shorter than the actual time required for its completion, it is critical for satisfactory project outcomes, because of its key processes, (all of which involve high level decision making skills), namely (a) crystallisation of project benefits (b) agreement on project implementation at governing levels, (c) fleshing out of project dimensions and project design, (d) arrangement of finance, and (e) selection of management team (Lewis, 2007). Although commercial project management does borrow many managerial and control techniques from regular management theory and practice, its finite and bounded nature poses significantly different and multifaceted challenges, especially those that arise from the need to make route corrections, if and when such need arises (Hannigan Browne, 2000). Whilst such route corrections are part and parcel of regular management projects, their occurrences in construction projects invariably lead to disruption of time, cost, and completion targets; thus the need for careful project initiation. A project well begun often leads to far easier meeting of project objectives (Hannigan Browne, 2000). The costs of the project, its construction and finance requirements, and time frame, ultimately depend upon project design, the excellence of which has a significant effect on its final success. The design for the Millennium stadium at Cardiff had to take account of variables like the proximity of the river Taff, the issue of tidal flooding and the demolition of a number of buildings with consequent compensation and relocation costs (Lowe, 2008). Mishandling of these issues could well have fatally jeopardised the outcome of this project. Project design is also inextricably linked to the land needed for the project. With land for prestigious projects invariably being substantial, and more often than not in populated areas, land acquisition is a complex exercise with political, environmental, social, and economic aspects that need to be addressed separately and competently. The Tatas, recent acquirers of Corus Steel and Jaguar Landrover, are in the process of constructing their factory for the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s cheapest car, the 2200 USD Nano, in India. In many ways the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s most celebrated and iconic project, the original Nano site near Kolkata in East India had to be abandoned after a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s work and more than 100 million US dollars in expenses, after protests from local landowners, (who did not agree with the land acquisition price negotiated by the concerned state government), led to riots and violence (Misery Is the Price Farmers Must Pay for Ã¢â¬Å"PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s CarÃ¢â¬ , 2008). The project, whi ch has been resumed in a totally different location, is now substantially behind, both in terms of costs and time, and only the future will tell whether the Tatas will be able to keep their price commitment. Provisioning of finance, its estimation, its sources, and its arrangement form another crucial component of project initiation activities. Project financing, especially in public private partnerships is a complex process, with different sources of finance carrying different cost and repayment commitments. Whilst the Millennium Commission projects were by and large funded by the national lottery, most projects are not so lucky and need to be funded adequately to ensure against work delays on account of financial inadequacy. The Spinnaker Tower, the showpiece of Portsmouth Harbour, suffered from underestimation of cost as well as under-arrangement of finances, leading to an overrun of 36 million GBP and the need to use taxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ money, an avenue that was specifically not considered at the time of the project decision (Oates, 2006). With financial inadequacy likely to arise both from poor financial management and from wrong cost estimation, it is important to get the financials right before the start of a complex and expensive project. Activities like the estimation of finance and the coordination of design activity are the responsibility of the commercial management team of the project, the selection of which, along with that of the commercial manager, is critical to project success. Subject to the necessary provisioning of required inputs from the project owners, the functioning of the commercial management team assumes enormous responsibility for successful project execution. Commercial Management Commercial management of projects is a complex and multifaceted discipline requiring numerous managerial skills and inputs. The execution of large projects is possibly among the most challenging of modern day management tasks, an area of work that is distinguished by two main features, first the sheer number of variables that need to be controlled and issues that need to be attended, and second the minimal scope for wrong decisions or operational blunders (Frame, 2002). The commercial management function is underpinned on theory that is drawn from diverse disciplines like social sciences, management, economics, law, accountancy and finance, in addition of course to project management and supply chain management (Lowe, 2008a). Commercial managers of construction projects have extensive responsibilities that commence from the time of initiation and need to be appointed as soon as a final decision on project implementation is taken (Frame, 2002). Whilst commercial managers are not involved in much of the initial decision making that concern areas of political governance, environmental and ecological issues and sourcing of avenues of finance, their involvement at this stage can be rewarding because of their managerial expertise and their previous experience (Frame, 2002). Commercial managers are more often than not senior practicing managers with significant project experience and are expected to be competent in areas of technical and financial knowledge, budgeting, forecasting and monitoring, law, human resource management, supplier chain management and above all leadership and general management. They need to be selected with the utmost of care as much of the proper execution of projects depends upon their knowledge and competence. Whilst they are generally provided with adequate support in both line and staff functions, their own knowledge of finance management, HR management, supplier chain management and project management is under constant challenge and test; successful project progression depends significantly upon their own interpretation of cash flows and assessment of contractors and subcontractors for project jobs. With the overwhelming majority of project work being carried out by contractors who are chosen for and assigned specific jobs, the most important constraint and critical variable in successful project execution arises from the need to appoint, instruct, monitor and control them (Lowe, 2008a). Unlike regular business organisations, where the bulk of the work is handled by company employees, the majority of project work is undertaken by external contractors who are supervised by project managers with the help of support staff and project accountants, a phenomenon that leads to the emergence of numerous uncertainties and project risks. Much of the delay in the construction of the Wembley stadium, which was finally opened in 2007, more than a year after schedule, can be related to unsatisfactory working of Multiplex, the main contractor (Lowe, 2008a). Contractors are used for every conceivable function and service, from providing designing and architectural services to erection, masonry, electrical work, provisioning of machinery and vehicles, and secretarial and canteen services. A comparison of the nature of project work with that of the currently growing trend of outsourcing in routine business operations is apt. Outsourcing, a process by which internal operations of the company, is handed over to outsiders in return of cost and efficiency advantages, can make a company vulnerable to external factors and is handled by most organisations with utmost circumspection and care. It is used only for repetitive and low skills work and the credentials of service providers are literally tested with fire before they are engaged. The complexities associated with running a company where practically every activity is outsourced can be realistically compared with the challenges faced by commercial managers of large, iconic, projects. Whilst appointing contractors it is essential to gauge their competence and ability for fulfilling proposed responsibilities by assessing their size, competence, availability, financial position, and readiness to work (Frame, 2002). Although such contractors are routinely appointed in Asian countries on the basis of their closeness to and intimacy with the commercial management team (leading to informal and trust based client-contractor relationships), such relationships in Anglo American environments are governed by detailed contracts, and most commercial managers use sophisticated legal help to draw out elaborate agreements with their contractors (Frame, 2002). It needs to be mentioned here that few of the contractors who are engaged in large projects represent small one man organisations. Most of them are medium sized or even large, (where the requirement is substantial, involves the use of expensive machinery or large numbers of people), organisations employing thousands of peopl e. Some are joint stock or privately held companies, and many operate a number of projects simultaneously. In many cases main contractors engage sub-contractors to carry out different jobs that fall under their area of responsibility. Apart from contractual obligations, contractors are controlled by regular monitoring, quality checks, and financial incentives and penalties. Despite the use of legal and managerial methods for progressing work, advancement of project activity in line with forecasts and schedules are often affected adversely due to a number of operational reasons. Commercial mismanagement of projects occurs, in the opinion of experts mainly because of (a) lack of commercial and project management skills with the implementing management (b) inability to assess and control risks (c) lack of attention to breaking development and implementation into manageable and discrete steps, (d) lack of understanding and contact with the supply industry at senior levels and (e) lack of effective project team integration between the commercial management team, the subcontractors, and other participants of the supply chain (Frame, 2003). Experts are also quite clear in arguing that many of the problems that arise in p roject management occur because of overworked commercial managers. Project owners rarely understand the extent of detailed and complex work that is natural to commercial management of projects, a phenomenon that leads to unsustainable loads on executives and to consequential errors and delays (Frame, 2003). Failure of Iconic Projects Project execution is essentially a complex exercise and is affected by the inter-play of a host of variables, many of which arise from issues and developments that are not under the direct control of the project execution team. Project delays and cost overruns, are common to both the private and public sector, and continue to happen despite the increasing sophistication of project and commercial management techniques and methods. Project failure in the IT industry, for example, is an unhealthy 85 %! Ã¢â¬Å"Research highlights that only one in eight information technology projects can be considered truly successful (failure being described as those projects that do not meet the original time, cost and (quality) requirements criteriaÃ¢â¬ (McManus and Wood Harper, 2008) The situation becomes even more complex in case of iconic projects. Such projects in the public or public-private domain arise because of a continuing historical obsession of decision makers with size and grandeur and often occur at the expense of more essential infrastructural projects like roads, hospitals, power and public transport. With the origins of such projects often mired in controversy and public disapproval, their approval leads to difficulties in balancing of public budgets and slashing of other required expenditure; the stated benefits of such projects often have to be related to the reduction of benefits from other areas that need to be cannibalised. Iconic projects, all over the world, irrespective of their location in the UK, Australia or the United States involve enormous costs and stress on size as a feature rather than as a requirement. They extol form over function and their benefits are more symbolic than measurable. Often large scale in nature they are taken up for boosting economic or tourism activity, (Millennium Dome), hosting huge sporting events, (Beijing and London Olympics), lifting regional prestige (The Millennium Stadium at Cardiff and Spinnaker Tower at Portsmouth), and symbolising governmental achievement (the magnificent Parliament House at Canberra). The Beijing Olympics led to an enormous demand for global steel and the intensification of a commodity super cycle, a phenomenon that now lies buried under the debris of the sub prime crisis. The London Olympics are similarly expected to generate 60,000 person years of employment during construction. With decisions for undertaking such projects often being founded on peripheral considerations, they are subject to excessive political interference, have unclear and ill defined objectives, over optimistic considerations, and inflated viability. More often than not they are driven by considerations of supply rather than demand and suffer from the Ã¢â¬Å"Build it and they will comeÃ¢â¬ syndrome (Fenn, 2002). It is difficult to assess today whether the huge infrastructure that has been created at Beijing or is being created at London will be utilised in future after the dust of the three week Olympic spectacle subsides. With England in the middle of a severe economic crisis, the pound losing against all world currencies, and unemployment expected to rise, the justification of continuing with such massive expenditure at the cost of economic measures that could help overcome the recession appears to be difficult. Critics also associate iconic projects with poor governance, symbolised by secrecy, lack of transparency, minimisation of risk assessment, fudging of budgets, and political expediency. The Federation Square project at Melbourne had major icon implications. It had high profile and high visibility during construction and a complex architectural design. The haste shown in its construction led to construction activity moving ahead of detailed design work and its lack of transparency was revealed in the cost overrun of more than 350 million when it was inaugurated in 2002, two years behind the opening deadline and in a still incomplete state (Prasser, 2006). The project was affected by cost variations, trade disruption and contractor delay claims, increases in contracting costs, extra project costs, hidden design changes, and post completion changes (Prasser, 2006). Whilst examples of poorly executed iconic projects are not difficult to find, tarring all top drawer projects with the same critical brush appears to be cynical; there also being projects that have been handled and executed with utmost transparency and brilliance. ArsenalÃ¢â¬â¢s Emirates Stadium at Islington, completed in 2006, is an example of brilliant project visualisation and construction. Awarded the Building Project of the Year at the Annual Building Awards, the judges described it thus: Ã¢â¬Å"The whole process was an example of how important teamwork should be to a project, with everyone from the client to the contractor and subcontractors coming together and working successfully to ensure the project was completed on time and under budget. The way that this team tackled design changes should be a lesson to the industryÃ¢â¬ (Lowe, D, 2008, 21). Conclusion Much of the perceptions associated with the Ã¢â¬Å"failureÃ¢â¬ of large Ã¢â¬Å"iconicÃ¢â¬ projects arise out of their being over budget and behind schedule. The execution of such projects is in common perception also associated with poor risk management, bureaucratic thinking, and poor project execution. Whilst a number of big ticket projects have been rightly criticised for their failure in meeting of project objectives and underdelivery of promised benefits, the basic issue about viability of iconic projects is prone to becoming clouded by media publicity and public debate. Project conception and management are by themselves extremely complex tasks and it is not difficult to understand the reasons behind their execution problems. The private sector also witnesses numerous incidences of project failure, a fact that possibly does not come to light because of the shroud of confidentiality that covers much of private sector working. Successful project execution involves two discrete and distinct components, first, the conception and visualisation of and the decision to undertake a project and second, its actual physical execution and completion. The actual progression of a project is largely carried out by experienced professionals with the aid of experienced contractors and it would be nothing short of uncharitable to lay the blame for unsatisfactory project execution to the inferior project management skills of managers of iconic projects. Brilliantly executed iconic projects like the Emirates Stadium at Islington confirm that large and top drawer projects can indeed be successfully completed. Iconic projects, especially those that occur in the public space, are usually visualised by political leaders, who, whilst capable of feeling the public pulse and conceptualising ambitious and extravagant plans are not fundamentally strong in commercially complex areas of project management. Being impatient doers they tend to rush through the initiation stages of such projects without paying detailed attention to the greater practical ramifications of project execution, thus building in inherent weaknesses that lead to difficulties later. Iconic projects have a far greater chance of being successfully executed if such errors can be minimised by more transparent and participative working in the initial stages without sacrificing the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s grand vision. The widely publicised aims and benefits of iconic projects are essentially subjective and their assessment in terms of right or wrong is beyond the scope of this commentary. Being public and long term decisions their benefits are judged more by posterity than by current applause or criticism and on many occasions assume dimensions that make issues like cost and time overruns trivial matters of detail and quibble. The public perception of success of iconic projects could however improve radically if their initiation and execution were tackled with clarity, conservatism and attention to detail. The responsibility for this lies essentially with the project owners, the people who conceptualise and decide upon the project, than on anybody else. Word Count: 4691 References Ahmed, A. S. (1993, May). The Taj Mahal, History Today, 43, 62+ Ali, M. M., Moon, K. S. (2007), Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects. Architectural Science Review, 50(3), 205+ Boss Stuck in Lift as Tower Opens. (2005, October 18). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 9
In a poll taken at Iowa State University, 53% of the upper-class students cheated on a test or plagiarized a paper while at Iowa State, 91% know someone who has, and 18% know someone who has been punished for cheating. (Bishop) What is driving this increase in academic dishonesty, and what are the effects of an academic career that thrives on cheating? There are numerous reasons why people cheat, but, regardless of whether they get caught or not, there are negative consequences. The motives students have for cheating are varied. No matter what the individual reason for someone to be tempted to cheat, their motives can generally be categorized as either based on a fear of failure or pressure to perform. Whether the student simply forgot to study and still desires a good grade, is afraid that they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t intelligent enough to pass without cheating, or is too lazy to do the work required to succeed, the underlying cause is a fear of failure or from pressure to perform. Once the line is crossed, and temptations become actions, there are other factors that come into play. In our current society, strong ethics are not highly valued. There is a prevalent attitude that claims: everybody is doing it, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt anybody, and this material isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really important to me. These people donÃ¢â¬â¢t possess a profound and thorough understanding of how cheating will harm them. We are consumed with the concept of instant gratification. Our society is near-sighted. Technology makes cheating so easy and convenient, but we often canÃ¢â¬â¢t perceive what the long term effects will be if that line between working for your grade and taking the easy way out is crossed. Most people believe that the consequences of cheating are co... ..., fear of receiving a low grade, or pure laziness, the results of cheating are severe. Even though getting caught and corrected may seem like the most obvious consequence of cheating, it almost seems insignificant when compared to the alternative. In reality, ramifications of getting away with repeated cheating are even more daunting. Maybe if students understood all the implications of cheating then it would not be considered as an option. Works Cited What's wrong with cheating? Professor Michael Bishop Chair of the Iowa State University Department of Philosophy and Religion http://dsa.csupomona.edu/judicialaffairs/whatswrong.asp What are the causes and effects of cheating on an exam? https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=14078 Cause and Effect Essay - Plagiarism and Cheating http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080218113757AAxt2cx
Monday, August 19, 2019
Though our state isn't known for its cold winters, the winter of my junior year seemed to be the most frigid of my life. Every morning I would trudge through mud puddles on my way to the distant portable toliet that received no announcements and was supplied with absolutely no heat. We were all assured that this was an underhanded scheme of Mr. Rives to keep us all awake in the morning. It got so bad that in a show of rage each student came to class with a blanket and sad face the day Mr. Rives was to be observed by administration. Soon enough, the heater was fixed. This event was just one of many casualties of construction; the remodel of Staten our junior year threw us back in with the freshmen, walking around dazed but impressed with what we saw, and leaving my first period class confused by the inability to solve our heater dilemma. The sense of confusion and entering something bigger than ourselves that we're confronted with our freshmen year never really leaves us - no matter h ow comfortable we became at Staten we were always caught in a whirlpool of change. After today we'll all be embarking into different worlds, but the lessons we've learned together throughout these four years of friendship, trauma, and dreams will help guide us through the new mazes set up for us, and though we may not be together, the experiences we've shared will help us through. Ferris Bueller, an icon of all that is high school, stated that, "Life moves pretty fast. If you don't stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it." Though some of us will still testify that these years have gone by much too slowly, most will be willing to admit that they've gone faster than we initially expected. Our freshmen year we entered Staten firmly locked in the cliques that carried over from middle school, only to watch them slowly dissipate as we met new, exciting people in each of our classes. This was the year of the blessed late start days and the introduction of the seemingly impossible new standards. Our freshmen football team battled its way to an undefeated season as we powerhoused our way through the year, struggling to stay afloat in the sea of new faces, traditions, and teacher reputations. Treading water we finally broke in to summer, eager to carry out plans with friends, new and old, and to take a break from the homework we had finally grown accusto med to.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Different Worlds of Black Girl Lost and Baby of the FamilyÃ Ã Ã Ã Although, African Americans are considered minorities in the United States, not all of them live in poverty. Many African Americans live in a middle class society along with the dominant culture. However, many African Americans do not live in a middle class society, but rather live in poverty and have to suffer along with this poverty. For instance, Donald GoinesÃ¢â¬â¢s Black Girl Lost and Tina McElroy AnsaÃ¢â¬â¢s Baby of the Family, two narrative novels, that illustrate the difference in two young African American girls lives and the society in which they inhabit. Not only do these young African American girls represent the two sides of poverty, they also represent how children can also qualify in the minority category. For example, Sandra lives in a run down apartment with a drunk mother who could care less about her daughter. In addition, Sandra remains all on her own and has to find ways in which to survive each day. But on the other hand, Lena lives in a nice size h ome with her two parents, her two brothers, and her grandmother, all who love her very much. Moreover, Lena has many family members who look after her and take extra special care for her because she is the baby of the family. Although, both Sandra and Lena lead very different lives, both are faced with challenges as a minority and as a child which questions their view on life. The home in which a child lives in is suppose to be a place of warmth, love, and protection. A home also offers other important aspects into a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life, for instance, self-confidence, pride, and security. If a child does not reside in a home that offers warmth, love, and protection, that child will not feel good about herself or the home in which she lives in. A child wants a home that he or she can be proud of enough to bring home a friend or two. In addition, if a child does not feel safe and secure in his or her home, then she will not posses these qualities in the outside world. Moreover, their lack of security can cause major disruptions and distractions within their everyday routine, like with Sandra. For example, the homes that Lena and Sandra live in illustrate the exact opposite of each other.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Primo LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬ËIf This Is a ManÃ¢â¬â¢ is a novel about a German concentration camp, one among many novels on the same subject. However, this book is exceptional as Levi never Ã¢â¬Ëraises his voice, complains, or attributes blameÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËIf This Is a ManÃ¢â¬â¢ is an objective story told in a detached tone using scientific language, which sometimes makes this book not a confession but an analysis. Nevertheless, distant tone and unemotional language bring the horrifying message across with even greater impact on readers. The saddest, the most powerful, and the most ironic chapter of the book is the central ninth chapter, called Ã¢â¬ËThe Drowned and the SavedÃ¢â¬â¢. Here the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s talent as well as his training as chemist comes through in unique manner. Instead of telling the story, Levi analyses the reasons, the methods, and the effects of German concentration camps. The result is more like an essay or even lab report rather than a part of a novel. The diction of the chapter is sharply contrasted with its content, emphasizing the terrifying events described. Already the first sentence of the chapter (Ã¢â¬Å"What we have so far said and will say concerns the ambiguous life of the Lager.Ã¢â¬ P. 102) reveals a lot. This sentence is the first step in building up the emotionless tone through technical diction. The first person point of view used throughout previous chapters is suddenly replaced by the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ as it is used in official documents. With every following sentence, the dryness of expression grows gradually: Ã¢â¬Å"To this question we feel that we have to reply in the affirmative.Ã¢â¬ (p. 102), Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the Lager was presumably a gigantic biological and social experiment.Ã¢â¬ (p. 102), Ã¢â¬Å"But another fact seems to us worthy of attentionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (p. 103). Read Also:Ã Analytic Rubric for Essay The impact of language is reinforced by the structure of the chapter. As Primo Levi names the Lager to be an experiment, he writes his analysis of the reasons and effects of the concentration camp in the form of a lab report. One can clearly distinguish statement of purpose, method statement, hypothesis, observations, conditions, and conclusion Ã¢â¬â all the important parts of a lab report. However, as said before the detachedness of the structure is in sharp contrast with the content. For example, the Ã¢â¬Å"methodÃ statementÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Thousands of individualsÃ¢â¬ ¦ are enclosed within barbed wire: there they live a regular, controlled life which is identical for all and inadequate to all needsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ p. 102) describes plainly and understatedly terrifying conditions of the camp. Levi does not complain, he just says that the conditions are Ã¢â¬Å"inadequate to all needsÃ¢â¬ but the underestimation brings the message across more powerfully, especially when compared to previous chapters. Similarly, the author writes: Ã¢â¬Å"And one must take into account a definite cushioning effect exercised both by the law, and by the moral state which constitutes a self-imposed law;Ã¢â¬ (p. 103), a statement, describing the conditions of Ã¢â¬Å"the experimentÃ¢â¬ , implying that there is no law or sense of morality in the camps. However, yet again, there are no protests or grumbles, and the reader has to find the meaning behind the statement himself. Ã¢â¬Å"VariablesÃ¢â¬ in the experiment are two categories of men Ã¢â¬â the saved and the drowned. Sudden change of tone Ã¢â¬â from official to poetic and back to official Ã¢â¬â is used to accentuate the difference among the prisoners, to bring it across for the reader that in the Lager the only choice was either to survive or to die. Everyone struggles to survive and in this brutal exertion, all means are justified. Ã¢â¬Å"If some Null Achtzehn vacillates, he will find no one to extend a helping hand; on the contrary, someone will knock him asideÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (p. 103). With this line author clearly states the moral of the camps: if IÃ¢â¬â¢m not for myself, who will be for me? With bitter irony Levi avers that the law Ã¢â¬Å"to he that has will be given; to he that has not will be taken away.Ã¢â¬ (p. 104) is openly at work in the camp and to obey this law is the only possible way to survive. Thus, the morality of the Lager is the antithesis of morality of normal life the way the concentration camp itself is antithesis of normal world. This passage is even more sarcastic when the fact that Primo Levi himself was not particularly strong and capable prisoner but rather a Ã¢â¬ËmuselmanÃ¢â¬â¢. However, as it has been mentioned in the beginning of this essay, Primo LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s book is different from other novels on the same topic. All the writers have shown the brutal morality, or rather immorality of the Lager and deduced from it that Ã¢â¬Å"the HÃ ¤ftling isÃ¢â¬ ¦ a man without inhibitionsÃ¢â¬ (p.Ã 103) thus giving up on the humankind. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude is different. He believes that humanity of the prisoners is still hidden deep in their souls waiting for an opportunity to recover. (Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦in the face of driving necessity and physical disabilities many social habits and instincts are reduced to silence.Ã¢â¬ p. 103) and as it becomes evident in the end of the book, he proves to be right. Another fact worth mentioning about this chapter is that the title Ã¢â¬Å"The Drowned and the SavedÃ¢â¬ used to be also the title of the English translation of the novel, indicating hence the importance of the chapter. As a conclusion it can be said that the novel Ã¢â¬ËIf This is a ManÃ¢â¬â¢ by Primo Levi and especially the ninth chapter is a unique account of the horrifying actions carried out in German concentration camps as it tells the story unemotionally using scientific diction to accentuate the seriousness of matter discussed. Analysis of the reasons behind setting up the Lager, methods used to break down human soul and the effects of the actions carried out by SS officials gives an appalling insight to one of the most horrifying events of the 20th century.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Dams are built for assorted intents ; the major map includes hydroelectric power coevals, imbibing H2O supply, irrigation, inundation control, diversion etc. But the different incidents and surveies done by several research workers proved that these big dikes made for these intents, besides at the same time pose significant menaces to the life, belongings and the environment throughout their lifecycle. The impacts may be different in different stages, viz. building, operation and decommissioning stage. There are about 845,000 dikes around the universe ( Jacquot, 2009 ) , the cumulative impact of all these dikes could be tremendous. So, it is indispensable to understate the impacts due to dam building on lives, belongings and environment. Identifying possible impacts, ciphering hazard and understating the hazard through the acceptance of assorted techniques could assist to take down the overall impacts. Major jeopardies associated with Dams throughout their lifecycle ( Reservoir ) : Construction Phase: Construction of big substructure like dikes demands monolithic sum of building stuff, digging procedure and vehicles, which straight impacts on the environment and society. Most of the equipments and vehicle engage on such activities use fossil fuel as the chief beginning of energy and contribute to the green house gas emanation. The estimated emanation from Glen Canyon dike during its building stage was calculated as 800,000 metric dozenss of CO2 equivalent ( Pacca, 2002 ) . The hazard of accidents due to the vehicles, building activity and digging procedure to the worker is likely. The building site could be of particular involvement for some animate being or works, so this activity may take to the disappearing such plant/animal from that country for of all time. Operation Phase: The operation of dikes besides poses menace to the environment and people. The menace of dam failure during the operation stage due to assorted grounds may do immense loss of life and belongings. There is ever menace of drawing of people on the dike. The emanation during this stage from the decay of biomass in the reservoir is obvious ; the emanation from the Glen Canyon dike during its operation stage was estimated to be 3,500,000 metric ton of CO2 equivalent ( Pacca, 2002 ) . The failure of dike is the most destructive event of the full lifecycle of dike. The inside informations on dike failure are discussed individually below. Decommissioning Phase: This is the last phase of the life rhythm of dike, this phase pose menace of brushing the downstream countries ( colonies, substructure, etc ) and the lives. The emanation from this phase is found as largest in comparing with building and operation. The emanation from the decommissioning of the Glen Canyon dike was calculated as 33,000,000 metric dozenss of CO2 equivalent ( Pacca,2002 ) , which was more than nine times the emanation from the full operation stage. Though the decommissioning work is done in controlled mode, the loss of belongings would non be as the dam failure. Environmental and Social effects throughout a dike Ã¢â¬Ës life: Construction Phase: Resettlement of people: Construction of Dam requires immense country of land, which is frequently acquired by displacing people from that topographic point. Peoples are frequently forced to go forth their familial land giving them psychological emphasis and the relocation to the new location frequently alters the bing environment at that place. In China Three Gorges Dam have already displaced a million people and still another 80000 are to be moved till its concluding phase, 1200 small towns and 2 major towns have had to be abandoned and rebuilt ( McGivering, 2006 ) . Archaeological sites: In some instances even the archeological sites besides get destroyed due to dam building. More than 100 archeological sites, some dating back over 12000 old ages is to be submerged due to the three gorge dike ( Gleick, 2009 ) . Transportation, digging and building: The motion of vehicles during the building of dike contributes to emission to some extent and every bit upset the ecology at that place. The digging and building procedure both impact the ecology locally. Air pollution due to the dust can be expected. Operation Phase: Siltation: Rivers carry sediment tonss, the sum vary harmonizing to the features of the catchment country and the speed of the running H2O. The building of dike reduces the speed of the river therefore assisting deposit to settle down within the reservoir. If the deposit shortage issue due to this in river, the channel can be expected to evacuate deposit from its bed and Bankss in the downstream set uping the environment at that place ( Grant,2003 ) . Methane Generation: Hydro power was considered to be the renewable that produce no nursery gases. Harmonizing to Boyle, G ( 2009 ) , a study by the universe committee on dikes ( WCD, 2000, Anon, 2001 ) , the decaying of vegetable affair in an anaerobiotic status produces methane ( CH4 ) , when the land is flooded with hydro undertaking. Fish migration: Fish are affected straight by the obstructor like dike on its class. The most normally affected species like Salmon, which needs to travel upriver for engendering, can be obstructed from their spawning topographic point. Flood of the engendering evidences within the reservoir, periodic flood and drying out of engendering land and refuge country downstream of the dike farther shackles the fish Ã¢â¬Ës activity. ( Harvath, and Municio,1998 ) . Birthrate of the downstream plains: The downstream portion of dike loose the food incorporating dirt, which used to have during implosion therapy. After the edifice of the Aswan dike, in 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës, the land downstream no longer receives the dirt and foods antecedently carried by the one-year Nile inundation. The agricultural system has been destroyed in the downstream and to be replaced and is replaced by irrigation and chemical fertiliser ( Boyle, 2004 ) . Local clime alteration: Increased precipitation has been observed after the building of dike, the physical procedure by which big graduated table surface vaporization triggers in the precipitation recycling in such country ( Hossain, et Al, 2009 ) . Changes in the air wet per centum, air temperature, air motion in large graduated table can be caused by large graduated table dike ( Tahmiscioglu, et Al, Ã¢â¬ ¦ . ) . Impact on biodiversity: In some instances edifice of dike disturb the home ground of critically endangered species excessively, the winter shelter of Siberien Crane and the Ã¢â¬ËBaiji Ã¢â¬Ë Yangtze river mahimahi, are found to be affected by the three gorges dam ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam ) . Induced temblors: big reservoirs can do seismal events as they fill, as the force per unit area on local mistakes additions ( ICE 1981 ) . The seismal activity of magnitude 5.7 was recorded in Lake Oroville in Butte county of California in June 1982 ( Allen, 1982 ) . Agricultural/ loss of woods: In many instances, the building of dike covers the productive agricultural land which used to be the agencies of nutriment for the local people and in many instances clear some portion of wood destructing natural ecosystem. About 1400 Hector of agricultural land is to be submerged because of the three gorge dike ( Gleick, 2009 ) . Spread of disease ( addition in disease carrying vectors, e.g. mosquito ) : Study carried out by Yewhalaw, et Al ( 2005 ) , found that the impounding can move as genteelness land for vectors like mosquito, and found that the kids populating near to dikes are at greater hazard of plasmodium infection than the kids populating off. Decommissioning Phase: Decommissioning: Even though, decommissioning of dikes help to reconstruct the reverine ecosystem to its natural status, some short term negative consequence such as sediment mobilization, contaminated stuff and menace of ace impregnation can be seen ( Bednarek, 2001 ) . Dam Failure: One of the most evidently harmful consequence of big dike is seen, when it falls. The implicit in causes may be different in each instance. Some of the major causes are ( ICOLD, 1973 ) : Dominating Foundation defects Shrieking and ooze Conduits and valves Seismic event harm Failure of dike due to internal H2O force per unit area Failure of dike due to drawn-out period of rainfall and implosion therapy Causes of Dam Failure that occurred between 1075- 2001 ( NPDP, 2007 ) ( Adopted from historic records of Dam Performance, 2007 ) On the footing of the above graph it can be said that, flood or dominating of the dike wall stand far in front from other causes of dam failure. Seepage and piping is on 2nd place and remainder of all are responsible for really less figure of dam failures, this graph proves that the overtopping of dike is the major causes of dam failures. Cost of Dam Break: The cost of dam interruption consists of two constituents ; Reconstruction cost of dike and economic loss due to devastation and flood downstream ( Kuo, et Al, 2008 ) . Cost and Benefit from Dam: Dam building is an expensive work and demands immense amount of money, but it provides highly necessary things for running the society and development like energy and H2O for imbibing and irrigation intent. On the other manus it has some impacts on society and environment, some of which needs tonss of money and clip for Restoration while others are irreparable. So building of dike has its ain pros and cons. Wayss to understate the happening of dam failure: Dam failure is the most destructive incident in the full life rhythm of dike, which may do immense loss of life and belongings. So it is indispensable to guarantee the safety of dike in order to protect the life and belongings. Some of the of import stairss indispensable for the decrease of dam failure and its impacts are as follows ( MDE, 1996 ) : Rigorous statute law should be promulgated by authorities for the building of dam/ Reservoir. Everyday distortion monitoring of ooze from drains in and around larger dike is necessary and if found faulty, disciplinary step should be taken. In instance of wall break, stone grouting ( force per unit area pumping of cement slurry ) can be done to cut down the hazard of dam failure. Regular monitoring and care could assist a batch to forestall dam failure. Early on warning system should be incorporated in the reservoir system to protect people and belongings downstream, in instance of dam failure. Dam building should non be allowed in the country of high seismal activity. Most of the states make safety programme for the protection of dike. In USA most of the Ã¢â¬Ëstates Ã¢â¬Ë are responsible for the safety of dikes within their boundary and to guarantee the safety they on a regular basis follow the undermentioned process ( Lane, 2008 ) ; Measure the safety of bing dike. Review programs and specification for safety and regulative programme. Carry out periodic review on building on new and bing dikes. Review and blessing of exigency action program. Some steps to cut down other impacts on and due to dikes: Management of catchment of river can assist to cut down deposit on dike, which may include plantation on the catchment country, acceptance of landside and eroding control measures for the upstream country of dike. The periodic cleansing of dikes can assist to cut down the burden of deposits within a dike and aid to repossess the capacity to its original signifier. Fish ladder can assist to reconstruct fish migration to some extent. ( beginning ) The computation of likely maximal precipitation ( PMP ) and appraisal of likely maximal inundation ( PMF ) and the chance of mean return period for that river, could assist to plan the dike decently ( CSCD,1985 ) , which could forestall dike from failure. Monitoring should be carried out to command the genteelness of mosquitoes in dike, if found, mosquito larvae must be controlled with the sanctioned mosquito larvicide, so that the other aquatic being will hold minimum impacts from larvicide ( DHF,2006 ) . Rich image of Dam and associated Impacts A Rich Picture exemplifying impacts of dike on assorted facets of environment and society Hazard of Dam Failure with age: Percentage of different age groups of dike failures in Russia in comparing with the failures of universe dike. ( Adopted from Management of Impounded Rivers, Wang and Melching, 2007 ) . Though age is one of the of import factor for the dam failure as the walls and other substructures erodes or weakens with age, but it is non merely the factor that causes dam failure ; faulty constructions, utmost conditions events, sabotage, seismal activities etc besides trigger to dam failure. The above graph showed that the highest figure of dam failure was in the age group 0-10, which so bit by bit decreases as the age group increases. The faulty construction can take to dam failure even at its early age while the good constructed and good maintained dike can function over hundred old ages. On the footing of above graph it can be said that aging in non the primary factor for dam failure and proper care can lengthen the life span of dam despite of age, and does non demo clear correlativity with dam failure. One likely ground of less figure of dam failures of the aged dike could be the proper care and decommissioning before the dike failure occurs. Risk Assessment of dam failure: Risk appraisal was calculated on the footing of informations from Annex-3. High badness status Entire Occurrence= 11 Average clip taken to reiterate the events for the category IA ( with more than 300 deceases ) =11.1 twelvemonth Average Death calculated=1111.1 Risk=Frequency ( event/ unit clip ) -Magnitude ( Deaths ) =1/11.1-1111.1=0.09-1111.1=99.99 Therefore, Risk=99.99 per 11.1 twelvemonth Hazard computation for overall dike failure Entire happening of dike failure=46 Average spread between consecutive events=0.39 twelvemonth Average decease per event=357.91 Risk= Frequency ( event/ unit clip ) -Magnitude ( Deaths ) Therefore, Risk= 1/0.39-357.91=2.6-357.91=930.5 individual per 0.39 twelvemonth Decision: Mentions: Allen, C, R, 1982, Reservoir Induced Earthquakes and Engineering Policy, California Geology, 35, 11 Bednarek, A, T, 2001, Undamming Rivers: A Review of the Ecological Impacts of Dam Removal, Environmental Management, 27,803-814. Boyle, G, 2004, Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future, Oxford University, Oxford CSCD,1985, Safety of Dams: Flood and Earthquake Criteria, National Academy Press, Washington D.C. DHF, 2006, Guidelines for Preventing Mosquito Breeding Sites Associated with Aquaculture Development in NT, Department of Health and Families, Darwin Gleick, P.H. , 2009, Three Gorges Dam Project, Yangtze River, China, Water Brief, 3, 139-150. Grant, E, G, et Al, 2003, A Geological Framework For Interpreting Downstream Effects Of dikes On Rivers, Water Science and Application 7, 209-225 Harvath, E, and Municio, M. A. T.,1998, 2nd International Symposium in Civil Engineering, Budapest Hossain, F, et Al, 2009, Local Climate Change, EOS, 90,453-468 hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam, assessed on 4 March, 2010. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.internationalrivers.org/files/srdamsafety.pdf, assessed on 20 May, 2010 hypertext transfer protocol: //npdp.stanford.edu/npdphome/Historic % 20Performance % 20of % 20Dams.pdf, assessed on 20 May,2010. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.damsafety.org/ , assessed on 20 March, 2010 International Committee on Large Dams ( ICOLD, 1973 ) , Lessons from Dam Incidents, Reduced Edition, Paris Jacqot, J,2009, Numbers Dams ; From Hoover to Three Gorges to the crumbling 1s, Environmental Policy, hypertext transfer protocol: //discovermagazine.com/2009/mar/08-dams-hoover-three-gorges-crumbling-ones, assessed on 17 May 2010. Kuo, J, T, et Al, 2008, Dam Over Topping Risk Assessment Considering Inspection Programme, Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess, 22, 303-313 Lane, N, 2008, Aging Infracture: Dam Safety, Congressional Research Service McGivering, J, 2006, Three Gorges Dam Ã¢â¬Ës Social Impact, BBC, hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/asia-pacific/5000198.stm, assessed on 3 March 2010. MDE, 1996, Maryland Dam Safety Manual, Association of State Dam Safety Officials Pacca, S, 2007, Impacts from Decommissioning of Hydroelectric Dams: A life Cycle Prospective, Climate Change, 84, 281-294 Tahmiscioglu, M, S, et Al, .. Positive and Negative Impacts of Dam on the Environment, International Congress on River Basin Management, 760-769 Wang, Z, Y, and Melching, S, 2007, Management of Impounded Rivers Yewhalaw, D, et Al, 2005, Malaria and Water Resource development: The Case of Gilgel-Gibe Hydroelectric Dam in Ethopia, Malar. J, 8, 21 Annex-1 ( Part-A ) PLAGARISM DECLARATION I declare that the work I am subjecting for appraisal contains no subdivision copied in whole or in portion from any other beginnings unless it is explicitly identified by agencies of citation Markss. I declare that I have besides acknowledged such citation by supplying elaborate mentions in an sanctioned format. I understand that either or both unidentified and unreferenced copying constitutes plagiarism, which is one of a figure of really serious offenses under the university Ã¢â¬Ës codification of pattern on the Use of Unfair Means. Student No- 200910979 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF A DAM CONTENTS PAGE NO. Introduction: 3 Major jeopardies associated with Dam: 3 Major environmental issues associated with dam 3-4 Catastrophes ( Dam failure ) : Siltation Methane coevals Fish migration Resettlement of people Birthrate of the downstream fields Local clime alteration Impact on biodiversity Induced temblors Agricultural/ loss of woods Spread of disease Archaeological sites Decommissioning Cardinal inquiries for portion B 5 Draft Plan 5 Mentions 6 Word Count- 1076 Word Limit- 1000 Introduction: Dams are built for assorted intents ; the major map includes hydroelectric power coevals, imbibing H2O supply, irrigation, inundation control, diversion etc. But the different incidents and surveies done by several research workers proved that these big dikes made for these intents, besides at the same time pose significant menaces to the life, belongings and the environment throughout their lifecycle. The impacts may be different in different stages, viz. building, operation and decommissioning stage. Yes, but what is th eproblem state of affairs or concern? Major jeopardies associated with Dam: Dam failure: one of the most evidently harmful consequence of big dike is seen, when it falls. The implicit in causes may be different in each instance. Some of the major causes are: Seismic event harm Failure of dike due to internal H2O force per unit area. Failure of dike due to drawn-out period of rainfall and implosion therapy. Menace to human life due to submerging in dike. Major environmental issues associated with dike: Catastrophes ( Dam failure ) : Dam failure frequently consequences immense loss of life, belongings and environment. During twentieth century some 200 dike failures caused more than ten 1000 people outside China and in the twelvemonth 1975 merely about one-fourth of million people were perished in the series of hydroelectric dam failure in China ( Boyle, G, 2004 ) . Siltation: Rivers carry sediment tonss, the sum vary harmonizing to the features of the catchment country and the speed of the running H2O. The building of dike reduces the speed of the river therefore assisting deposit to settle down within the reservoir. If the deposit shortage issue due to this in river, the channel can be expected to evacuate deposit from its bed and Bankss in the downstream set uping the environment at that place ( Grant,2003 ) . Methane coevals: Hydro power was considered to be the renewable that produce no nursery gases. Harmonizing to Boyle, G ( 2009 ) , a study by the universe committee on dikes ( WCD, 2000, Anon, 2001 ) , the decaying of vegetable affair in an anaerobiotic status produces methane ( CH4 ) , when the land is flooded with hydro undertaking. Fish migration: Fish are affected straight by the obstructor like dike on its class. The most normally affected species like Salmon, which needs to travel upriver for engendering, can be obstructed from their spawning topographic point. Flood of the engendering evidences within the reservoir, periodic flood and drying out of engendering land and refuge country downstream of the dike farther shackles the fish Ã¢â¬Ës activity. ( Harvath, E, and Municio, M. A. T.,1998 ) . Resettlement of people: Construction of Dam requires immense country of land, which is frequently acquired by displacing people from that topographic point. Peoples are frequently forced to go forth their familial land giving them psychological emphasis and the relocation to the new location frequently alters the bing environment at that place. In China Three Gorges Dam have already displaced a million people and still another 80000 are to be moved till its concluding phase, 1200 small towns and 2 major towns have had to be abandoned and rebuilt ( McGivering, 2006 ) . Birthrate of the downstream plains: The downstream portion of dike loose the food incorporating dirt, which used to have during implosion therapy. After the edifice of the Aswan dike, in 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës, the land downstream no longer receives the dirt and foods antecedently carried by the one-year Nile inundation. The agricultural system has been destroyed in the downstream and to be replaced and is replaced by irrigation and chemical fertiliser ( Boyle, G, 2004 ) . Local clime alteration: Increased precipitation has been observed after the building of dike, the physical procedure by which big graduated table surface vaporization triggers in the precipitation recycling in such country ( Hossain, F, et Al, 2009 ) . Changes in the air wet per centum, air temperature, air motion in large graduated table can be caused by large graduated table dike ( Tahmiscioglu, M, S, et Al, Ã¢â¬ ¦ . ) . Impact on biodiversity: In some instances edifice of dike disturb the home ground of critically endangered species excessively, the winter shelter of Siberien Crane and the Ã¢â¬ËBaiji Ã¢â¬Ë Yangtze river mahimahi, are found to be affected by the three gorges dam ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam ) . Induced temblors: big reservoirs can do seismal events as they fill, as the force per unit area on local mistakes additions ( ICE 1981 ) . The seismal activity of magnitude 5.7 was recorded in Lake Oroville in Butte county of California in June 1982 ( Allen, C, R, 1982 ) Agricultural/ loss of woods: In many instances, the building of dike covers the productive agricultural land which used to be the agencies of nutriment for the local people and in many instances clear some portion of wood destructing natural ecosystem. About 1400 Hector of agricultural land will be submerged because of the three gorge dike ( Gleick, P.H. , 2009 ) . Spread of disease ( addition in disease carrying vectors, e.g. mosquito ) : Study carried out by Yewhalaw, D, et Al ( 2005 ) , found that the impounding can move as genteelness land for vectors like mosquito, and found that the kids populating near to dikes are at greater hazard of plasmodium infection than the kids populating off. Archaeological sites: In some instances even the archeological sites besides get destroyed due to dam building. More than 100 archeological sites, some dating back over 12000 old ages will be submerged due to the three gorge dike ( Gleick, P.H. , 2009 ) . Decommissioning: Even though, decommissioning of dikes help to reconstruct the reverine ecosystem to its natural status, some short term negative consequence such as sediment mobilization, contaminated stuff and menace of ace impregnation can be seen ( Bednarek, A, T, 2001 ) . Cardinal inquiries for portion B: Answer to the undermentioned inquiries will be searched in the 2nd portion of this instance survey: What are the major jeopardies associated with dike and how the hazard can be minimised? What are the attacks practised to understate the impact on dike on environment and homo? How the dike induced impact like deposit, obstructor on the fish migration path and addition in diseases bearer vector can be regulated? How the regulation organic structure guarantee the safety of dike? How the factors like political relations and economic system affect in the building of dike? Draft Plan: Introduction Major jeopardies associated with Dam ( Reservoir ) Causes of Dam failure The possible impacts of such jeopardies Measures to understate the impacts Environmental Issues associated with Dam Impact on agribusiness and wood Impact on fish migration Impact on biodiversity Measures practised to understate the impact Socio economic impact of Dam Abandonment and relocation of displaced people Damagess to ancient heritage ( archeological construction ) Wayss to understate the harm to ancient heritage Cost Benefit Analysis of Dam Decision